From medieval period to present modern era human being has achieved a drastic progress. Our ancestors who use birds to communicate never imagined a field like Information technology will change the meaning of communication. I often wonder how do this computer do connect to each other. Finally today I got a chance to present a research topic on Computer Networking. In simple language it is a technology that connects one computer to other. It is a technology that has changed the way of living life. It is a technology that has become the part of the world family.
Its exponential progress in he field was so amazing that before the world realised the change, the world was already living in the era of revolution in Internet. DISCUSSION Beginning Of the New Technology Necessity is the mother of Invention. World was introduced to the idea of Internet by Professor Leonard. He successfully transferred a data from University of California to Stanford Research Institute (SRI) via ARPANet (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network). Now, world was dreaming of sending messages to any part of the world.
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World was searching for a way of communication between two devices, a way to ransfer data from one place to another through computers. Scientist Robert Elliot ‘Bob’ Kahn and Vint Cerf came with a protocol which modified the definition of communication. Bob and Vint together invented TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) protocol. TCP / IP are the set of rules for communication between two devices. Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf are rightly called as the father of Internet because their discovery opened the path of communicating two computers or devices across the globe.
Through the wires A century of telecommunication How Two Computers Form A Connection? The initial step in communication is one computer must find the other computer. The second step is both computers must agree on the methods, and rules for communication known as protocols. In the next step one computer takes on the role of making requests from the other computer. The requesting computer is known as client and the replying computer is known as server. Most computers in a network use this client/server model to communicate. The set of protocols required for communication is the TCP/IP invented by Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf.
Andrews Jean, 702 Fig. 1 Connecting Two Computers Transmission Control Protocol consists of four layers. The first layer is the Network Link Layer at the bottom. This layer is device independent. It is responsible for connecting a physical device to internet. The second layer is the Internet layer. It is responsible for sending data across different networks. It is responsible for sending information from source network to destination network. The third layer is the Transport layer. It is responsible for providing end to end services that are independent on the structure of the data send or the network attached to the device.
Application layer is the final layer of the TCP/IP model. It is a higher level protocol offering user services. All the online applications we use in our day to day life in our computer are offered because of Application layer. These four layers work in synchronisation and a network connection is established. Communication between two computers happens in layers. As shown in the fgure below, the application layer initiates the communication. It sends a request to the Operating system (O. S. ) (Transport Layer) which passes the request to the network card (Physical Layer) and then into the network (Transport Layer).
As soon as the request reaches the network card of the server (Physical Layer of Server) the network card sends the request to O. S. (Transport Layer) which in-turn passes the request to the Application of the web server. The application of the web server will checks the compatibility and will respond accordingly. Andrews Jean, 703 Fig. 2 Flow of Data TCP/IP TCP / IP protocol is also known as DOD model as it was funded by an agency called DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) of United States Department of Defense. Internet originally began as a technology for cold war. Geoff Huston, Telstra
Development of Internet With the proposal of World Wide Web (WWW) by Sir Timothy John in late 1980s internet was no longer the technology used in wars. Private enterprises were greatly appealed by the new augmenting technology. They can see a new futuristic business ruling the entire world. In the year 1991 WWW was eventually completed and the first web page was created. In the same year the first search engine Gopher was created which allows us to search not only a file but also from its contents. The year followed with couple of commercial inventions like Web Cam and acceptance of MP3 file ormat for audio.
In 1993 internet was ultimately given complete access to public. The first commercial transaction via internet was made possible in the year 1995 by Netscape. They constructed encrypted software for safe online transaction. Soon Internet also commenced expansion on social grounds. The first web based mail service i. e. Hotmail was launched. The mail service proved to be very intriguing in public interest. Soon weblog got introduced in 1997 where freedom to upload or write an article was provided. The unique search engine GOOGLE which proved to be he most users friendly was finally launched in the year 1998.
With the passage of time Skype in 2003, Facebook in 2004, You-Tube in 2005, Twitter in 2006, and the first US Internet election in which every politician Jumped over internet for campaign in CONCLUSION In the long run Internet has Just kicked off and it has still ways to go. It will keep bringing stunning ideas and applications which will amend its own meaning from time-to-time. Still it remains the fact that with the invention of Internet, the world has changed. Internet has become a mandatory part of our daily life. The things which were impossible even to dream in medieval era has been used and made possible all because of internet.
It has made the world smaller and smaller. Not only we can talk online but can also see each other on the screen. With VOIP (Voice Over ‘P) technology all the world leaders can seat together in a video conference and discuss about world peace. Researchers can discuss their research and all can together work on a report and discuss the progress at the same time. After the mechanical revolution which developed auto-motives locomotives, and changed the meaning of ransportation Internet has changed the meaning of Communication. Works Cited Andrews, Jean.