Pakistan were partitioned and given independence in 1947, after which there was remarkable improvement in scientific and technological education and research; Illiteracy, however, remained high. The new constitution adopted by India did not change the overall administrative policy of the country.
Education continued to be the prime responsibility of the state governments, and the union (central) government continued to assume responsibility for the coordination of educational facilities and the maintenance of appropriate standards in higher education and search and in scientific and technical education. N 1950 the government of India appointed the Planning Commission to prepare a blueprint for the development of different aspects of life, including education.
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Thereafter, successive plans (usually on a five-year basis) were drawn and implemented. The main goals of these plans were (1) to achieve universal elementary education, (2) to eradicate Illiteracy, (3) to establish vocational and skill training programs, (4) to upgrade standards and modernize all stages of education, with special emphasis on technical education, science, and environmental education, on morality, and on the relationship between school and work, and (5) to provide facilities for high-quality education in every district of the country.
From 1947 the government of India also appointed three Important commissions for suggesting educational reforms. The university Education Commission of 1949 made valuable recommendations regarding the reorganization of courses, techniques of evaluation, media of instruction, student services, and the recruitment of teachers. The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 focused mainly on secondary and teacher education. The Education Commission of 1964-66 made a comprehensive review of the entire field of education. It developed a national pattern for all stages of education.
The commission’s report led to a resolution on a national policy for education, formally issued by the government of India in July 1968. This policy was revised in 1986. The new policy emphasized educational technology, ethics, and national Integration. A core curriculum was Introduced to provide a common scheme of studies throughout the country. The national department of education was a part of the Ministry of Human Resource Development, headed by a cabinet minister _ A Central Advisory Board of Education counseled the national and state governments.
There were several autonomous organizations attached to the Department of Education. The most important bodies were the All-India Council of Technical Education (1 945), the university Grants Commission (1953), and the National Council of Educational Research and Training (1961). The first body advised the government on technical education and maintained standards for the velveteen of technical education. The second body promoted and coordinated university education and determined and maintained standards of teaching, examination, and research in the universities.
It had the authority to enquire into the financial methods of the universities and to allocate grants. The third body worked to upgrade the quality of school education and assisted and advised the Ministry of Human Resource Development in the Implementation of its policies and major programs In ten Title AT actuation. I en central government ran Ana implemental bout 1,000 central schools for children of central government employees.
It also developed schools offering quality education to qualified high achievers, irrespective of ability to pay or socioeconomic background. The seventh five-year plan (1985-90) specified that one such vitally would be set up in each district. The state governments were responsible for all other elementary and secondary education. Conditions, in general, were not satisfactory, although they varied from state to state. Higher education was provided in universities and colleges.