Differentiation- how do cells change into different cell types? Morphogenesis- ” know how to organize functional structures? Growth- ” when to stop dividing? Reproduction- ” achieve “immortality” Evolution- How do changed In development create new body forms over time? Role of environment in development 08/27/13 Class- 1 Life Cycle: A central unit In biology Epigenetic: New organisms are generated from somewhat disorganized cytoplasm and reorganized DNA.
Perforation does not exist In anatomical structures Embryo mediates between the genotype and phenotype Three germ layers [ectoderm/mesoderm/endoderm]-> Organ systems -Dyes can be used to track the origin and position of cells -Congenital anomalies can be caused by genetic and or environmental factors -Syndromes- developmental abnormalities that appear unlinked but occur together Major Processes: Mechanical and epithelial cells MET: Mechanical -> Epithelial transition Condensation- Cell division- Cell death Mechanical Cells: Migration- Matrix secretion and degradation- Growth Epithelial: Dispersal- Delimitation- Shape change or growth Cell migration- NOTES Gastrula] Ectoderm: Outer surface- Epidermal cells of skin -CONS- Neuron of brain -Neural Crest- Pigment cells (melancholy’s) Gastrula] Mesoderm: -Dorsal-Notched- derived from cells of mesoderm, primary axis of the embryo – Paraxial (central axis of the body, situated alongside or each side of)- Bone Tissue – ‘OFF between)- tubule of the kidney -Lateral-Red blood cells -Head- Facial muscle Gastrula Endoderm and Germ Layers: Endoderm- Digestive tube/Stomach cell, Parathyroid cells, Respiratory tube/lung cells (alveolar cells). Germ cells- Male/female gametes, Sperm and egg MET: Mechanical and Epithelial transition Mechanical Cells Condensation causes the Mechanical cells to morph into epithelium cells and allowing the formation of Mechanical cartilage.
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Cell division causes mitosis, which makes more cells (also known as hyperplasia) and allows the Mechanical cells to morph into limb Mechanism. Cell death causes cell to obviously die and in turn causes the formation of interlarding Mechanism. This means the cells individualize and some die in order to create the digits (Interlarding tissue degenerates and as a result digits individualize). Migration allows the cells to move at particular times and places, which allow the Mechanical cells to form into heart Mechanism. Matrix secretion and degradation allow the synthesis or removal of the extracurricular layers, which encourages the formation of cartilage Mechanism.
Growth causes hypertrophy (cells get larger), which allows the formation of fat cells. (SEE LECTURE 2, Slide 11- Mechanical cells & Epithelial if confused) Epithelial Cells -Dispersal causes the epithelium to become Mechanism on a whole structural basis, which allows the formation of the Millenarian duct degeneration- Ducts that are art of the embryo but are only useful for females and become fallopian tubes, uterus, or cervix, for males they are lost (Obviously made of Mechanical tissue which is why epithelium becomes Mechanism). -Delimitation causes the same thing as dispersal, Pep. 0 Mess, except in this case it is only partial structure, this allows chick hyperbolas to occur. Shape change or growth causes cells are intact and stick together while morphology is altered, which allows enumeration (neural tube is transformed into the primitive structures that will later develop into the CONS). See Chart for summary Table 1. 1) Fate mapping: -A method of understanding the embryonic origin of various tissues by establishing the correspondence between the individual cells at one stage of development. 9/3/13 Pancreas- contains 2 classes of cells: Exocrine and Endocrine cells. Silencers (turn down expression)- ensures that expression occurs in specific places During development, you express different globing genes. Change in Hemoglobin affinity that allows the change from before your born to after.
Binding protein start of all messenger Rona’s Mature Constructed have more elasticity then precursor constructed Fifes- Fibroblast growth factor-helps cells grow- in order for it to function it has to bind too cell; it is a protein. Question: Gene alternative? 9/10/13 -Certain specific genes or patterns define axis orientations. -Genes that we characterize are called maternal effect genes- before egg fertilization and they help determine polarity -The control of RNA was by cytoplasm localization. -Localization is what puts it in contact with other areas. -There’s a mechanism that protects the localized area from degradation-protection is not uniformly distributed. -How are marina’s transported w/in the cell- Dyne helps move things along Oscar: -Oscar is important in the formation of germ cells. -The positive activity is being blocked.