Most abundant organic molecule in nature a) 3 major classes: Incarcerations – simple sugar – polyhedron alloyed or ketene; represent individual sugar Electrocardiographs – consist of short chains of macroeconomics units joined together by covalent bonds; 2-10 strings of sugar Polysaccharides – long chains having hundreds or thousands of macroeconomics units b) Functions: Provide energy thru oxidation – glucose oxidized for energy Supply carbon for synthesis of cell components Energy storage to form a part of structural elements of some cells and tissues; loose stored as glycogen c) Classification General formula (CHIC)n where n is any integer from 3-7 Incarcerations are either alludes or stones Alludes – incarcerations that contain alludes Ketosis – incarcerations that contain stones d) Also classified by number of carbons: 3 carbons – triodes, 4 carbons – tresses, 5 Co’s – pentose, 6 Co’s – hoses, 7 Co’s – heptanes Each of these exist in 2 series: lotteries and sidestrokes, lodestars and keystrokes, lodestones and keystones, lodestones and stethoscopes, lodestones and stethoscopes B.
Stereotypical ) Storerooms: all atoms are bonded together with exactly the same bonding pattern but differ only in the arrangements of their atoms in space b) Moisteners: Non-superimposed mirror-image pairs of storerooms (left and right hand) Observed only when a carbon atom has 4 dif groups attached to it (e. G. CHEWY also called choral molecules) One of the necromantic pair is a member of the C)-family and other is L-family c) Properties of Moisteners Have identical physical and chemical properties They rotate the plane of the plane-polarize light by equal degrees but in opposite erection Those that rotate plane-polarize light clockwise are called declaratory and are designated and plus (+). Those that rotate plane-polarize light counterclockwise are called laboratory and are designated by a sign (-). When both moisteners are present the net rotation of plane-polarize light is zero (I. E. Optically inactive) and mixture is retorted to as racemes mixture d) D- Or L- configuration Incarcerations contain choral centers so they can exist as moisteners known as D or L The most oxidized C or most oxidized end is drawn at the top The position of hydroxyl group on the penultimate C; choral C furthest from carbonyl group (oxidized end) determines configuration: If -OH group is on right, the molecule has D- configuration If -OH group is on left, molecule has L-configuration e) Stereotypical: Almost all incarcerations contain choral centers Can rotate plane of polarize light Exist as pair of moisteners Also exist as toastmasters – isomers that are not moisteners. Dosimeters that differ at only a single carbon other than the reference carbon are Ephemeris. E. G. Glucose & calaboose – differ at CA C.
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Cyclic structure a) Worth Projection Sugars that contain 4 or more Co’s exist in cyclic forms Sugars that may cycle to 5-member ring (furans) or 6-member ring (paranoia) A new choral center is generated when ring cycle and resulting pairs toastmistress are called monomers. These are designated alpha or beta. In Worth Projection of any cyclic form of a D-sugar the -COACH group is always “up” with the following 2 configurations. When the -OH group at the anorexic carbon is “up” or CICS to -COACH group, sugar is 3-D-sugar (B-monomer) When -OH group at anorexic carbon is “down” or trans to -COACH group, sugar is a-D-sugar (a-monomer) II. Incarcerations A.
Reactions of Incarcerations a) Miniaturization – interconnection between cyclic forms; The collocation RSN is an equilibrium RSN and the various forms interconnect thru central alloyed or ketene form (miniaturization) b) Oxidation-reduction RSN Oxidation: The alloyed group may be oxidized by metal ions such as Cue+ and certain enzymes to yield Aladdin acid Oxidation of COACH but not alloyed yields ironic acid Oxidize both alloyed and hydrometer group Sugars that are oxidized by weak oxidize agents (Benedicts Reagent) are called educing sugars Reduction: Reduction of alloyed or ketene group yields a sugar alcohol or Litton. The Litton cannot cycle and remains as the open chain c) Glycoside Formation Hemispherical and inseminate will react Witt alcohols to tort acetates and kettles. T is a glycoside linkage and the compound is called a glycoside.
If an acetate is form from 2 incarcerations the resulting glycoside is called a disaccharide d) Commiseration Change of configuration at a choral center or an Aledo’s-ketosis conversion e) Sterilization Phosphate and sulfate esters of crab molecules are common. Sterilization changes the sugar’s chemical and physical properties. Often phosphorescently activate a sugar for further RSN B Other Derivatives a) Decoy sugar – replace hydroxyl group with hydrogen L-Focuses (derivative of C)-manses) 2-Decoy-B-C)-ribose b) Amino sugar – replace hydroxyl group with amino group. Commonly occur in glycogen]agates A) Glutamine B) Agglomeration C) N-acetate-glutamine D) N-extracurricular acid Ill.
Disaccharide A. Disaccharide a) 2 incarcerations covalently bonded by glycoside bond b) Glycoside bonds are readily hydrolysis by acid ) Is a reducing sugar if hemispherical hydroxyl group at C-1 is free d) Configuration of disaccharide is determined by position of hemispherical hydroxyl group at C-1 B. Lactose a) Occurs only in milk b) Made up of B-C)-calaboose & either a or b+glucose; linked by -4)glycoside bond c) Is a reducing sugar BC of potentially free carbonyl group in glucose d) Must be hydrolysis by lactate into calaboose & glucose prior to absorption from intestine into bloodstream; without this enzyme – lactose intolerance to milk products. C.
Maltose a) Malt sugar b) Contains 2 C)-glucose Joined by a(1-4) glycoside linkage ) Is a reducing sugar since it has potentially free carbonyl group that can be oxidized d) Intermediate product of starch hydrolysis e) Maltose is hydrolysis to 2 molecules of C)-glucose by intestinal enzyme maltase D. Sucrose a) Table sugar or cane sugar b) Contain a-glucose and a-fructose c) Linked through glycoside bond BTW both anorexic CSS d) A nonrecurring sugar – both macroeconomics ring cannot convert to open chain E. Glucose a) Also known as dextrose b) Primary fuel for cells c) Preferred energy source of brain cells, cells with few mitochondria, and cells with emitted oxygen d) Present in starch, lactose, maltose, and sucrose F.
Calaboose a) Lodestone sugar b) Present in lactose, globetrotting, and protectively c) Readily synthesized from glucose-I-phosphate d) Must be converted by series to enzymes into phosphorescently tort to glucose tort cellular metabolic RSN e) Genetic disease – clematises – is due to the absence of enzyme(s) for this conversion G. Fructose a) Ketosis or ketene sugar b) Collocation produces a and B -D-fructose c) Fructose is a reducing sugar. Ketosis can be converted to alludes via an needing H. Electrocardiographs ) 2-10 incarcerations Joined by bonds thru “oxygen bridge” (C-O-C) = glycoside bonds or ether bonds b) Most common electrocardiographs are disaccharide c) Most often bound to polypeptides to form globetrotting or to lipids to form glycoside l. Incarcerations linked by glycoside bond a) Maltose b) Lactose c) Sucrose IV. Globetrotting A. Globetrotting a) Aspirating-linked carbohydrate High manses Complex Hybrid b) Music-type crab c) Most common are those with linking groups N-gastrointestinal serine or the N- gastrointestinal-throne d) Crab that are covalently linked to protein ) Crab composition varies from 85% B. Classified according to linkage: a) N-linked electrocardiographs – polypeptides attached by N-glycoside bond. Linked to amide side chain of aspirating b) O-linked electrocardiographs – polypeptides attached by O-glycoside bond. Linked to hydroxyl group of serine or throne C.
Types & Functions a) Enzyme – Ribonucleic B b) Hormones – Follicle-stimulating hormone (FISH) c) Transport proteins – Transferring, Glucose transporter d) Mucilaginous – Gig & IGMP e) Membrane protein – An+ -K+ -Tapes pump & cell surface antigens f) Cell acceptors – insulin receptors & cell admission molecules V. Polysaccharides A. Polysaccharides a) Also called glycols b) Differs in incarcerations units, length and degree of branching c) Function: As storage forms of incarcerations As structural elements in cell walls and connective tissues d) Two types of polysaccharides: Humidification’s – contain only a single type of monomers units (e. G. Starch) Hydroelectricity’s – contain 2 or more dif kinds of monomers units (e. G. Halcyon acid of connective tissue) B. Starch a) Implementation Highly branched Glucose residues in main chain are a(1-4) linked, but are a(1-6) linked at branch points Each branch contains 20-25 glucose units There are many branches b) Consist to 2 types to glucose polymers: A-amylase Consist of long unbranded chains of C)-glucose connected by a(1-4) linkages Form long tight helix Degraded by 2 types of enzymes A-amylase – cleaves glycoside bonds of amylase chain at random a-amylase – sequentially cleaves dimmers of glucose (maltose) from the nonrecurring end of amylase chain C. Glycogen Main storage polysaccharide of animal cells Branched polyp’s of C)-glucose
A(1-4) glycoside bonds & branch linkages are a(1-6) Similar to implementation except glycogen has more and shorter branches Found in liver and skeletal muscle 10% of liver mass 2% of muscle mass Liver glycogen granules also contain, in tightly bound form, the enzymes responsible for its synthesis and degradation D. Digestion of Glycogen & Implementation The a-amylase hydrology the a(1-4) linkages of the outer branches of glycogen and implementation to C)-glucose, maltose, and a resistant “core” called limit Dexedrine A debauching enzyme, -6)-glycoside hydrolysis the branch linkages, and expose another tier or -4)-linked branches to the action of the a-amylase The enzyme B- amylase hydrolysis alternating a(1-4) linkages, yielding mostly maltose which is hydrolysis to C)-glucose by enzyme maltase VI. Cellulose A.
Cellulose a) Breakdown of cellulose produce glucose (macroeconomics) cellulose (disaccharide) b) Characteristics Most abundant organic molecule Fibrous, tough, water insoluble substance Structural component of plant cell walls Linear unbranded humidification’s of B-C)-glucose units linked by 8(1-4) glycoside bonds Pairs of polymers held together by H-bonds to form microfossils which are bundled together to form fibrils Cannot be digested by humans – we cannot synthesis the enzyme cellulose which can hydrology the 8(1-4) glycoside bonds B. Chitin a) Similar to cellulose b) Unbranded chain of monomers units linked by 8(1-4) glycoside bonds c) Monomers units are N-gesticulations VI’. Hydroelectricity’s A. Hydroelectricity’s a) High-molecular-weight polymers that contain more than one kind of macroeconomics b) Often referred to as sociologically (GAGS) c) Are linear polymers of disaccharide repeat units B. Glycogen]agates a) Crab molecules covalently linked to proteins or lipids