This has led to an enormous increase in the variety of packaging equipment, materials and design techniques. Prior to this, in Ghana, people had thought of corks and bottles only as packaging components. Ghanaian had seen packaging only as a protective tool rather than a communication tool and It had centered on boxes, containers, bottles, etc. With the growth of merchandising and self-service however, manufacturers and for that matter Ghanaian have come to realize the value of packaging as an effective communication tool in marketing than Just a container or wrapper because of intense intention on the market.
Packaging is to be considered as an aspect of the actual product when seen in the light of the three major components of a product; the core, augmented and extended product. These essential features, benefits, quality level, styling, brand name, logo plus a host of related offerings are what the buyer expects to find and all these are carefully embodied in packaging and labeling. It should be realized that people now purchase products not necessarily because of its functional aspects but because of packaging, Drank, logo, colors etc.
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Evidence of good packaging is demonstrated by most of the foreign goods we see on our markets – a display of very bright and attractive labels and pack designs that catch the eyes of buyers easily and instantly. In 1996, consumer criticism led to the passage of the federal fair packaging and labeling Act which requires that consumer goods be clearly labeled in easy – to – understand terms to give consumers more information. Due to this most companies today, now place great emphasis on the registration and protection of their brands and labels and distinctive features.
Some f them even have centralized departments that control the use of brand names so as prevent imitation especially by trade mark. Another significant point to consider has to do with the consumer and how he or she recognizes brands to which he has become loyal. In the market these days, consumers do not have time to consider every aspect of the product. As a result, they normally pick the brand they are familiar with. In this respect, manufacturers in Ghana should strife to make packages that are attractive and different from others which will give maximum and handy information to customers to make purchase sessions.
The size, shape, design and closure of the pack should also go a long way to enhance the image of the product and give a visual appeal. The Cocoa Processing Company Limited has been chosen as an area for the study because this company is seen as a model to others. The main concerns are the Golden Tree Chocolate Products. Packaging is becoming an increasingly important aspect of marketing strategy. Companies are seeking packaging as a way to attract customers to new and existing products or brands.
For existing brands there is growing tendency to repackage, that s to redesign the existing package, wrapper or container. In 1989, the Cocoa Processing Company developed or repackaged its Golden Tree Chocolates to enhance the image of the products. Redesigns cost as little as CHIC,OHO to CHOUGH and are seen as potentially cost effective way to boost sales. There are two different trends in packaging; one involves reducing the packaging size and the other is increasing the size. A significant packaging issue facing marketers is the environmental impact of packages.
Concern is growing about the effect of plastic packaging on animals and human beings. Sea animals and birds mistake discarded plastic packaging and bags for food which results in the destruction of their digestive tracts. Some of these plastic packages have been found to be harmful to the earth’s ozone layer. Today’s plastic package can remain intact for up to four centuries, and for this reason packaging producers are putting millions of money into research to find biodegradable plastic packaging.
Packaging is designed to protect a product from spoilage and maintain its functional form. It is to offer convenience for consumers to ensure portability and helps in identifying the product with the company. Most importantly, packaging and labeling go a long way in communicating the product features, characteristics, benefits and others to the customers and the outside world. A bad packaging automatically depicts a bad product. A package therefore, must be able to attract attention instantly and create intent to buy.
A package must tell the consumer all he or she wants to know about a product to enable her make purchase decision, so that a package and its labeling should act as a silent salesman. Packaging in Ghana had not really developed as with the international markets and this had hampered the effective marketing of goods made in Ghana. These goods are sometimes very high in quality and should sell well on the international market but the packaging of these products leaves much to be desired.