Introduction Technology is carrying new advertising tools a step forward from traditional advertising tools. With the improvements in technology and telecommunication, new advertising tools become the most effective way to find and reach target consumers. Brands become more Interactive and transparent. Like any tool, new advertising used correctly, it lowers investments and responds investments with quick increase in sales. Customization and advertisement-tailoring are another trend in today’s society, therefore making new advertising tools more personal for target customers has great effect on sales.
According to today’s advertising and marketing conditions, it is a necessity to provide. Communication management is one of the most crucial requirements in today’s marketing field. If the communication management process does not apply accurately, brand image is influenced negatively. Nowadays, besides the fact that target consumers are exposed to advertising communication, they are becoming a part of the process as well. Another advantage which is brought by new advertising tools is measurement. Measuring the effects of their advertisements is every company’s greatest desire.
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With online technology and new advertising tools, agreement becomes easier and unbiased. Moreover, measurable advertisements which are provided by new advertising tools enable the observation of return of investment in advertising. Social media channels and e-mail services provide customers easy and interactive communication with companies. Interaction between companies and customers improves quality of products and/or services. In addition to interaction, companies have opportunity to consider customer needs, wants and demands at first hand and answer them in real time.
Even usage of social media and the internet advertisements are increasing dramatically; TV commercials and printed ads still reach more people than ever. In this regard, classic TV commercials and printed ads are still more useful and effective for increasing brand recognition. Another consideration about advertising tools is memorabilia of advertisements. Generally some excellent examples of viral videos stick in customer’s mind and the rest is forgotten quickly. II. New Advertising Tools a.
Social Media Social media refers to interaction among people in which they create, share, and/or exchange information and ideas in virtual communities and networks. Andrea Kaplan and Michael Heinlein define social media as “a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2. 0, and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content”. Furthermore, social media depend on mobile and web-based technologies to create highly interactive platforms through which individuals and communities share, co-create, discuss, and modify user-generated content.
They introduce substantial and pervasive changes to communication between organizations, communities, and individuals. Diffusion of innovations is a theory that seeks to explain how, why, and at what rate new ideas and technology spread through cultures such as social media. Everett Rogers, a professor of communication studies, popularized the theory in his book “Diffusion of Innovations” (2003). The book says that diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system. The origins of the diffusion of innovations theory are varied and span multiple disciplines.
The book explains the theory that there are four main elements that influence the spread of a new idea: the innovation, communication channels, time, and a social system. This process relies heavily on human capital. The innovation must be widely adopted in order to self-sustain. Mass. The categories of adopters are: innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, and laggards (Rogers 1962, p. 150). Diffusion of Innovations manifests itself in different ways in various cultures and fields and is highly subject to the type of adopters and innovation-decision process.
According to diffusion of innovations, social media research has three different viewpoints. First, from the perspective of methodology, they design a grand new framework comprehensively considering the components of user preference, social influence, and propagation tendency to covers users with strong diffusion power. Second, from the empirical perspective, they use microbiology as the data source rather than traditional web sites. Third, from the perspective of application context, they apply this recommendation mechanism to online social advertising so as to deliver advertisements effectively.
Nowadays, social media is used for sharing personal information, and giving ability of affecting millions of people with advertisements. Now, 87% of companies are using social media effectively to gather customer data, even they can access to consumers directly in real time. Advertising campaigns are established based on personal databases and relationships between individuals in social media. Consumers are good advisors on the social platforms which increases brand recognition and trust. For example, on the Twitter, customers are tweeting and firms reply their customers immediately.
Also, companies can measure the effectiveness of these tweets. Social media is related with business traffic rise and business exposure. Social media marketing has different effects on individual’s social life. While social media sector is improving rapidly, more and more social media companies are being established and that is lawful for the future business partnerships. B. ID Advertising A ID, 3-D (three-dimensional) film or SAD (stereoscopic ID) film is a motion picture that enhances the illusion of depth perception. ID technology is one of the most popular entertainment technologies in digital age.
Glasses-on and non-glasses are the types of ID technology. ID technology is also a new development for advertisement sector. Nowadays, popularity of ID advertisements is increasing, because it is more effective than normal ID advertisements. ID advertisements allow customers to explore products in every aspect. A higher sense of presence will result n greater enjoyment and an increase in level of product knowledge. Rising in perceived product knowledge and greater enjoyment will result in more favorable attitudes toward advertising.
The effect of SAD advertising in creating presence will be moderated by the novelty of the advertising content and design. To sum up, ID and SAD advertising is a new tool and it increases the effectiveness of advertising. C. Online Advertisement Nowadays, advertisements are in consumers’ mobile devices, on computers, in online games, etc. On the other hand, even if online platforms are popular, they are not used really effectively. Customers are trying to keep away from online advertisements and positive reactions to online advertisements are decreasing.
To prevent these decreasing, billions of online advertisements can be developed differently from traditional ones, because many of them include too much visual and audio property which cannot be ignored and will be an advantage compared to traditional ones. The other way is non-search display advertisements like “Deceased” by Google. Ads can be given on the convenient sites which are appropriate for the company’s content. Some campaigns, called obtrusive (visibility) campaigns, with videos or pop- as are differentiated with their contents.
While visible online advertising and context-based online advertising are working so well separately, they are not successful when they are used as a combination. Consumers accepted context-based online advertisements, because they think they can learn something, but they do not like obtrusive online advertising. Also, context-based advertising can help to show the unexpected achievement of products like “Deceased” by Google. To conclude, there are some regulations directed by government about privacy of customers and constraints about gathering information from customers. D.
Online Advertisement Tools Pop-Up: Opens a new window above current one. Pop-under: Opens a new window under current one. In-Stream Video & Audio: Part of videos on internet. Takeover: This kind of ad resizes the screen. Nonuser-Initiated Video & Audio: Videos and audios are played themselves as advertisements. Interstitial: When an individual visits a web-site, it appears by itself, while web page is loading. Nonuser-Initiated Background Music: Background music is played automatically. Full-Page Banner Ad: The advertisements appear in size of the computer screen. Interactive: Mutual communication is requested by the ad from its seers.
Floating Ad: The users do not run this ad, they exist anywhere on the page for a while (generally 5-30 seconds). E. E-mail Advertisement Email advertisement is also an online advertisement tool which has been used for a long time by marketers to reach customers. When used effectively, e-mails are a good way to reach customers. Emails with catchy information are successful. However, considering the fact that consumers are facing so many mails, they can ignore advertisement e-mails from a single company, which comes daily. In this case, company should measure its e-mail effects and it should provide choices between Kelly and daily e-mails.
There are disadvantages in e-mail advertising. Spam e- mails and e- mails without subscribe or non-subscribe options. For example, if a company sends e-mails to an unsatisfying customer and the customer cannot non- subscribe it, it will create a bad impact. In conclusion, companies should use e-mail advertisements effectively and they should make e-mails more personal and informative to be successful. F. Billboards Billboard is a large outdoor advertising structure (a billing board), typically found in high-traffic areas. Billboards present large advertisements to passing pedestrians ND drivers.
Typically showing large, ostensibly witty slogans, and distinctive visuals, billboards are highly visible in the top designated market areas. Billboards are highly popular in outdoor advertising. There are three types of displays for outdoor advertising; posters, bulletins, and permanent bulletins. Billboards are changing very fast in recent years. Marketers are creating unique outdoor ads including ID advertisements, unique billboard advertisements apart from searching for efficient outdoor areas to reach their target market. It is claimed that billboards are causing visual pollution.
In order to calculate the market value of billboards, marketers must regulation and zoning, traffic and visibility, and market demand. To conclude, valuation of the billboard has three different methods; the cost approach, the sale comparison approach and income capitalization approach. G. CRY Codes CRY code (abbreviated from Quick Response Code) is the trademark for a type of matrix barded (or two-dimensional barded) first designed for the automotive industry in Japan. A barded is an optically machine-readable label that is attached to an item and that records information related to that item.
The information encoded by a CRY code may be made up of four standardized types of data (numeric, alphanumeric, byte / binary, kanji) or, through supported extensions, virtually any type of data. CRY code can be read by cameras of mobile phones or other devices which have an application and can access to internet. CRY code delivers related URL to users and provides more advertisement. It reduces cost of advertising and is actually more effective than traditional ones. Some brands use CRY code in their printed advertisements.
For example, people access to Coca-Cola’s music website by its CRY code for free. For making successful CRY code advertisement and promotion, arresters create a harmless URL and code, so that customers find it safe. CRY codes are examined by marketers in three principal variables; privacy concerns and trust risk. H. Product Placement Product placement, or embedded marketing, is according to the European Union “any form of audiovisual commercial communication consisting of the inclusion of or reference to a product, a service or the trade mark thereof so that it is featured within a program”.
Product placement stands out as a marketing strategy because it is imperative to attach the utmost importance to “the context and environment within which the product is displayed or used”. This technique of advertising was made to create reality and awareness for the customers. Nowadays, firms invest large amounts for product placements. Visual-only, audio-only and audio-visual combined are three main strategies which are used for product placement. Visual-only strategy consists of product’s image, motto, logo or other visual brand without any sound.
At the audio-only product placement, products cannot be seen in the video but brand names are mentioned in dialogues. The final type of product placement is made by combination of visual and audio. This combination must be made carefully in order to to interrupt the normal flow of the media. Product placement provides positive customer reactions, if they do not have negative ideas about products, for instance alcohol or cigarettes in movies. In conclusion, while exposing to media, consumers are positively affected by product placement, if they enjoy experiencing the media.
Ill. Company Research a. Y??Rasa Y??Rasa is the first company which implemented pastured milk cheese production, also known as cultured cheese production, as industrial investment in Turkey. Varieties of cheese, yoghurt, milk, buttermilk, butter and fruit nectar are produced by Y??Rasa in factory which is located in Surplus, Balkiest. It has the largest market share among manufacturers of cheese product in Turkey. Y??Aras’s factory in Surplus the traditional cheese at hygienic and modern facilities, ensuring its continuity have become policy and mission of company.
Y??Rasa states its motto as “the haunting flavor”. It has been continuing to produce in European standards and is on the way of being a world brand, since 1908. When they first started, the percentage reserved for new advertising tools from Research & Development budget was 1%. However, they eave increased it to 5% and they aim to increase more within the years ahead. Y??Rasa uses 7% of their total sales for advertising budget and 15% of this advertising budget is reserved for online advertising. Faceable, Twitter and Youth accounts and their own web page are used for online advertising.
They prefer to use outsourcing for advertising and work with several advertising agencies. They provide to their customer the real-time returns on social media accounts. This is an implementation which makes dissolve customer’s doubts away and increase the existing customers’ commitment. With efficient usage of social media, they have an advantage in terms of marketing among their competitor. Therefore brand recognition of Y??Rasa and their sales increase by time. They also use television, newspapers and magazines to reach their potential customer mass and they assert these are the most powerful channels they use.
As it is mentioned before, they prefer to use a lot of advertising tools, several of which have combination of informative, persuasive and reminder characteristics. They aim to inform people about their product and production techniques, persuade and stick in exist and potential customers’ mind by their Jingles and motto. They prefer the ads to be minder and persuasive while they are introduce new products to customer. They also want to ensure that the ads are completely honest and suitable brand’s mission and principles.
Y??Rasa uses five approaches. They use “musical” approach to make advertisements more reminder than traditional advertisements. They use “slice of life” approach to make their existing and potential customers feel themselves closer to the company. “Lifestyle” approach is supplementary to the slice of life approach. They are trying to implement “scientific evidence” approach and the “technical expertise” approach to advertisements as a combination. When implementing the combination, they take into consideration all certificates, company principles.
One of the most important questions which asked by most of the companies is possibility of calculating return of social media investment. So many studies are being done about this topic but it is not very easy to value a “like” or a “follower” exactly. But it can be said that Y??Rasa is not only achieved their targets about usage of social media but also their recognition of brand has increased with usage of social media. They decide how long ads will stay on TV or any other advertising channels by taking into inconsideration watching frequency and researches about ads effectiveness.
Generally advertisements display for month on TV but there is no time limit for social media ads. According to Y??Rasa, range of their advertisements is set by customer; frequency of advertisements is set by Y??Rasa and agency by taken into consideration research results and advertising budget. They prefer minimization of positive impact of advertisements. B. Coca-Cola As one of the most highly recognized soft drink brands in the world today, many people love Coca-Cola because of its sweet fine taste and refreshingly nice flavor. Today, it comes in different enticing varieties including Coca-Cola Vanilla, Coca-Cola Zero and Diet Coke.
In order to know more about this great product, it is good to learn its history including information on the person who invented Coca-Cola. The consumer world is changing. Consumers do not want brands to communicate one- way. A story should be told. Coca-Cola is one of corporations have brand story. If it is a good story, it is spreading spontaneous. In all of their campaigns, it is wanted to create such stories because they believe and tell each other so that their communication occurs in this way. Otherwise, they do not want to be limited to certain periods of the messages.
So, if it is said “Coca-Cola yammerer iii giddier. ” (Coca-Cola goes well with food. ), they do not want to say only three months. After television ad, later on, all year in stores and digital area they continue same communication. For such communication, the necessary approach is used. Generally, musical and lifestyle, more music, are come to the fore. Music makes people happy and “mutual kappa as (open happiness) is their slogan. Coca-Cola is one of the best example of “Think global act local” motto. Coca Cola is a global firm but it acts as local company.
Especially, Coca-Cola Ramadan ads are examples of this strategy. If the firm is perceived as member of an idea, it can lose some of target group and sales can decrease. Ramadan ad strategy transformed the threat into an opportunity. So, is it developed different strategies for different locations. Sometimes the ad can be informative, sometimes persuasive. Generally, the ad includes the mix of those. Decision depends on target group and products will be introduced. After interviews with the advertisement agency, the advertising tool which they should use is planned.
Most of time, music helps advertisements to become informative, persuasive or reminder. Therefore, they care about the music festivals to reach people. The most known of the festivals are “Rock Coke” and “Fantasy Genii Festivals” (Fantasy Youth Festivals) in Turkey. The messages can be changed by the time. For example, during Ramadan, the ads are related in family themes, especially big families. On the other hand, in festive times, the messages are sending to young people, ads are about youth, entertainment and dance. In recent days, the new post is about Christmas.
However, generally, it can be said the message must include happiness. As it is seen end of most ads, it is concluded with “mutual kappa as (open happiness) sentence. The ad time depends on the ad kind. This situation is changeable. Sometimes outdoor advertising need to people, area and legal permits, and it may take a week, maybe one day. When it is used billboards, the ad can be presented during one month. On the other hand, television ads are standardized. According to the ad, it has different time. Christmas ads are on view one or two weeks. The situation is more stable for the internet ads.
In the process of advertising using the method, Cola products in general, young, care about healthy vying and vivacious people who have adopted as the main theme discussed are used of advertisements. On the other hand, when the main competitor Pepsi is investigated, it is observed its ad strategies generally are interested in famous stars have a reputation across the globe. Finally, Pepsi has been forced to change its strategy because most of time, Pepsi products are perceived as if for rich people. So, Coca-Cola is more effective in the field of traditional advertising.
As mentioned above, Pepsi preferred famous people and it brought millions of dollars cost. This strategy did not work, because famous people do not convince as before. Coca-Cola is affecting simple but effective people ads. It interests the culture of societies and accordingly, it acts. In recent times, as a new advertising tool, new product placement system is emerged, popular TV series are used and feedback shows that it is successful tool to reach customers. The other new ad tool is digital media. Digital media supplies to understand what consumer think say and do.
Clicks such as like clicks, comment clicks or dislike ones are not a certain feedback. Click feedbacks cannot be measured as outcome of ad investments. But, absolutely they bring to rise o sales and revenues. At least, digital media helps to take the right steps. Ads contribute the company to recognize, traditional or digital. In the carbonated beverage industry, there should always be ad. Although digital media supplies less cost, it is Just focus of consumers who use more tech. Target group of Coca-Cola is wider, it covers online customers. So, the target group includes people of variety generations.
The company uses mix advertising tools such as traditional, digital and outdoor advertising. All of them bring about different benefits. Digital media brings about some benefits to ad world. Every day, evolving network model and social networks help to make users happy. Thanks to profit at zero cost, competition and productivity are rising between businesses. New products and services are tested by online consumers with zero cost, it is directly seen problems, suggestions and requests of customers, increasing of brand awareness. These benefits make digital media become attractive.
Nevertheless, traditional media is more used to get more consumers. Thanks to traditional media, Coca-Cola Company is leader and it has prestige in its industry when compared to its rivals. Digital area is interesting for the sat two years, for Coca-Cola. After the ideal agencies are determined, they have established a strong infrastructure. For example, this year they invited to official Faceable page for announcing the list of Rock Coke. Then, they announced that the list is not declared until gathering 10 thousand members of camping. It Just took a week to collect 10 thousand members.
And then, the list is declared. World revenue of Coca Cola is $95 million. 8% of this revenue is used for advertisement and marketing expenditures. For thirty years, as an outsourcing, Coca-Cola & Pars McCann Erickson have worked together. For expenditures, they spend production costs of print, radio, internet and television advertisements as of the first date the advertisements take place. The following amounts reflect the total worldwide amounts spent on print, radio, internet, and television advertising. While choosing outsourcing agency for the ads, success of the agency is important for the first step.
Then, the agency must understand what they aim. Innovative and forward-looking characteristics are more significant, because Coca-Cola is leader firm in the carbonated beverage industry. In Turkey, Coca-Cola Company is in a good relation tit McCann Erickson for 33 years. The advertisement’s reach, frequency, impact and the other details are arranged by Pars McCann Erickson Agency. The internet ads have shorter time, the other ads on television are more often presented and they usually take time between half a minute and a minute. In accordance with the given instructions, the ad is emerged for the planned aim. . Move Turkey. It produces fresh dairy products. Whether their employees or their customers, their priority is always “human”. Big or small, near or far, every one of their clients has the same meaning and same value for the company. Their understanding of quality and performance that constitute their group philosophy leads them to work hard, develop continuously and sustain their preciseness in production and services. Nova’s motto and mission are suitable to the “innocent milk” principle and they are providing completely honest advertisements for their consumers and customers.
In this regard, they are trying to be extremely careful. EX. and ITS approved certificates and awards can be seen all of their products to state Nova’s principles. Moreover, they are trying to show their products’ quality which is top quality, even by EX. standards. It is also named as the highest “premium quality’. Approximately 10% of their total sales are allocated for the advertising budget. About 25% of the advertising budget is allocated for the online advertising budget. When they first started, it was 1. 5%. However, they have increased it to 3% and they aim to make it 5% within the next five years.
They prefer to use outsourcing for advertising. The outsourcing company is Refiner Advertising Agency. In the field of advertising characteristics, they are trying to inform consumers about their products and production techniques. Also, they are trying to convince consumers with the artifices and awards they have uniquely in the industry. With their “mottos and jingles”, they are trying to take a place in their existing and potential customers’ minds. These techniques created serious positive impacts on company’s sales.
When introducing new products to the customers, they prefer to make advertisements more persuasive and reminder than previous advertisements. Move uses five approaches. They use “musical” approach to make advertisements more reminder than traditional advertisements. They apply “slice of life” approach to make their existing and potential customers feel themselves closer to the company and products. Lifestyle” approach is complementary to the previous approach. They are trying to apply “scientific evidence” approach and the “technical expertise” approach to advertisements as a combination.
When applying this combination, they consider all certificates, company policies and customers to choose optimum advertising arrangements. Move is using a website, three main social media tools, including Faceable, Twitter and Youth, and also newspapers, magazines and television advertising. According to Move, they are using their website and social media really effectively than their rivals. For example, Move Faceable page has “Marimba” (Hello) application. This application provides Move to reassure customers that has doubts and to increase the loyalty of existing customers. It increases Nova’s brand recognition.
Furthermore, every comment made on social media, every question asked by customers and every tweet is responded by company experts in real-time. They are also developing small add-ones and applications for social media. As a result of these application and developments, sales increased dramatically. In this way, it is an important advantage in terms of marketing. Move generally prepares advertisements in the form of video and presents them to their customers with TV ND social media. Even if their TV commercials remain nearly one month on-the-air, there is no time limit for their social media advertisements.
This comparison is the asked by each company is return on social media investment is whether it is possible or impossible to calculate. Too many attempts are made in this regard, but the value of a “like” or the value of a “follower” is not possible to calculate. In fact, social media is a marketing tool for the vast majority. Moreover, return on advertising investment is the most important criterion. If the targets, which they set before the advertising, re exceeded after advertising and advertising investment pays for itself, they succeed in advertising investment.
However they do not use Just this method, they have also other criteria. (Other criteria are classified. ) Also, the return of the low cost digital media is appropriate for their budget and the main feature of digital media is it can be presented to their existing and potential customers in a short time. They try to measure the benefits with advertising investment return and brand value change. Currently, they are not planning to enter to international markets within five years. However, Move has serious plans to enter European markets. While establishing and certifying their company, they prioritize that aim.
Therefore, the quality of products which Move produce is at the highest level, the “premium level” according to ITS and also EX. standards. Like every modern company, Nova’s main goal is to attain new generation customers with the help of developing digital media and ensuring the long term sustainability. However, in doing so, they are very careful about two points. First, they try not to disrupt the media channels which are necessary to reach their existing customer base. Second, while maintaining their existing customer base without compromising quality and understanding, they try to impress potential customers.
Move sets the new target customer base firstly. While determining new base, they try to preserve their existing customer base. Then, they are doing marketing research. They select random samples to test their demo advertisements. Finally they publish their advertisements depending on the positive results which they obtain at tests. The target customer base determines their range. According to the results of their advertising research and their advertising budget, they decide the frequency with their advertising agency. They prefer minimization of positive effects, while setting the impact of their advertisements. . њliker International њliker, whose history goes back to 1944, is one of the best loved brand names in Turkey. Founded and built in the 20th century, the њliker brand, riding on its phenomenal momentum, was carried into the 21st century, seemingly unlimited by time and space. With its roots in tradition but reaching toward the future, њliker is a name that continues to focus on the sociological and economic wellbeing of the community, but in parallel with that side of its existence, the organization is gaining new meaning. For the timeless њliker brand, there seems to be no end in sight.
The name њliker became synonymous with happy memories and the intrinsic values of trust, honesty and affinity. њliker became part of the daily lives of many Turkish families and slowly but surely became entwined in the lives of consumers. Since 1944, the company’s industrial, managerial, marketing and sales; advertising and customer relations activities have been based on the corporate culture established by the њliker name. This is what makes њliker more than Just a brand name. њliker International uses 10% of their advertising budget for online advertising. For these