L South Korea occupies the southern half of the Korean peninsula, which protrudes about 620 miles (1,000 kilometers) southward from the Eurasian landmass between Soviet Siberia in the northeast and Chinese Manchuria to the north. About three thousand islands belong to Korea, among which the Province of Check Island is the largest. The total area of the peninsula, including the islands, is about 85,000 square miles (222,000 square kilometers), of which about 45 percent or about 38,000 square miles (99,000 square kilometers) constitutes the territory of South Korea.
Geopolitically, the insular is surrounded on three sides by the sea and by Russia, China, and Japan. Korea has suffered from the attempts of these neighboring countries to dominate it, particularly in the twentieth century. Each of them considers Korea to be of major importance to its own security, and since 1945 the United States has had a major security interest in the nation. The peninsula was divided at the 38th Parallel in an agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union at the end of the World War II. Subsequently, the Military Demarcation Line established by the Armistice
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Agreement of 1953 to bring a cease-fire to the Korean War (1950-1953) replaced the boundary. A 2. 5-mile (four-kilometer) wide strip of land that runs along the cease-fire line for about 150 miles (241 kilometers) is fixed at the Demoralized Zone (DMZ) as the no man’s land between North Korea and South Korea. Korea is mountainous, and only about 20 percent of the land in the south is flat enough for farming. Seoul, the capital, is in the northwestern part of the country on the Han River, which flows toward the Yellow Sea. Seoul was first established as the walled capital of the Chosen Dynasty in 1394.
Before Japan colonized Korea in 1910, Seoul was the first city in east Asia to have electricity, trolley cars, a water system, telephones, and telegraphs. Seoul has grown into a metropolis of more than ten million residents. The palaces, shrines, and other vestiges of the Chosen Dynasty are still prominent features of the city north of the Han River, serving as major tourist attractions. In the last few decades, Marketing Plan for Korea By paternalism condominium In 1997, the population was 45. 9 million, with 1,200 persons per square mile (463 persons per square kilometer).
Since the mid-sass, when Korea stabilized t a low level of fertility, remarkably high sex ratios at birth have resulted from son- selective reproductive behaviors such as prenatal sex screening and sex-selective abortion. Another notable demographic trend is the increasing ratio of the elderly: the 1997 census revealed that 6. 3 percent of the total population was 65 years of age or older. About seventy million people speak Korean. Most live on the peninsula, but more than five million live across the globe. Korean is considered part of the Tunics branch of the Altair group of the Rural-Altair language family.
It also has a lose relationship to Japanese in general structure, grammar, and vocabulary. The form of Korean spoken around Seoul is regarded as standard. Major dialects differ mainly in accent and intonation. Except for old Check dialect, all are mutually intelligible. Koreans value their native tongue and their alphabet, handgun , which was invented in the mid-effluents century. Until then, Koreans aristocratic society used Chinese characters, while the government and people used the writing system known as did (a transcription system of Korean words invented in the eighth century by Sills scholars using Chinese characters).
The Chinese writing system requires a basic knowledge of several thousand characters. Commoners who did not have the time or means to master Chinese could not read or write. Moreover, it is difficult to express spoken Korean in Chinese characters. Considering the frustrating situation of mass illiteracy and troubled by the incongruity between spoken Korean and Chinese ideographs, King Season (1397-1450), the fourth ruler (1418-1450) of the Chosen Dynasty, commissioned a group of scholars to devise a phonetic writing system that would represent the sounds of spoken Korean and could be learned by all the people.
The result was Humming Choosing (“the Correct Sounds to Teach the People”), or handgun , as it is called today. The system was created in 1443 and promulgated in 1446. South Koreans observe Handgun Day on 9 October with a ceremony at King AEGON’s tomb. Handgun is easy to learn since each letter corresponds to a phoneme, and Korea now has one of the highest literacy rates in the world. UNESCO established the King Season Literacy Prize in 1988 and offers it annually to an individual or group that contributes to the eradication of illiteracy worldwide..
The national flag, Taking , is a unique symbol. The flag of Outage’s (“Supreme Ultimate”), symbolizes the basic ideas of East Asian cosmology shared by the peoples in the Chinese culture area. In the center of a white background is a circle divided horizontally in two by an S-shaped line. The upper portion in red represents the yang, and the lower portion in blue symbolizes the um (yin in Chinese), depicting the yang principle of a universe in perfect balance and harmony.
The central symbolism in the Outage’s form is that while there is a constant movement of opposites in the universe (day and night, good and evil, masculinity and femininity), here is also balance. The four trigrams at the corners of the flag also express the ideas of opposites and balance. The three unbroken lines in the upper left corner represent heaven while the three broken lines placed diagonally in the lower right corner represent the earth. The trigram in the upper right corner represents water; while the one placed diagonally at the lower left corner represents fire.
In contrast to sense of the national identity of the Than people by making territorial references to the East Sea (Sea of Japan), Pakistan (“White Head Mountain,” on the northern order with China), and the beautiful land of Managua (the rose of Sharon, the national flower). The phrase shampoo’s-lie Kananga (“three-thousand-lie land of orange and river”), which is included in the national anthem, refers to the national territory. The phrase Han pit-Chula (“one bloodline”) often is used by Koreans at home and abroad to symbolize their shared identity as the members of a homogeneous nation.
Blood and territory thus are the most frequently invoked metaphors associated with the nation. National days of celebration include Liberation Day ( Acknowledge ) on 5 August and National Foundation Day ( O’Connell ) on 3 October. Acknowledge (the Day of Recovering the Light) celebrates the nation’s liberation from Japanese colonial rule in 1945. O’Connell (Heaven Opening Day) commemorates the founding of the first Korean kingdom, Schnook, by the legendary priest-king Tanning Wanting. Story and Ethnic Relations The Korean peninsula has been inhabited for more than half a million years, and a Neolithic culture emerged around 6,000 B.
C. E. The legendary beginning date of the Korean people is said to be 2333 B. C. E. , when Tanning established the kingdom of Chosen (“Morning Freshness,” often translated as the “Land of Morning Calm”) around today’s Pyongyang. To distinguish it from the later Chosen Dynasty, it is now referred to as OK (“Old”) Chosen. In the legend, Tanning was born of a divine father, Wan-Eng, a son of the heavenly king, and a woman who had been transformed from a bear. The bear and a tiger had pleaded with Wan-Eng to transform them into human beings.
Only the bear achieved the transformation by following Hanging instructions, which included a hundred-day seclusion to avoid sunlight and the ingestion of a bunch of muggers ( SKU ) and twenty pieces of garlic. This bear turned woman then married Wan-Eng, and their offspring was Tanning. A recent interpretation of the bear woman is that she came from a bear totem tribe. The Old Chosen period is divided into the Tanning, Kaki, and Woman periods. Shortly after the fall of Woman Chosen in 108 B. C. E. And the establishment of Chinese military control in the north, the Three Kingdoms (Sills, Gorky, and Package) period began.
In 668, Sills unified the Three Kingdoms. Sill’s decline in the late ninth century brought about the rise of Later Package and Later Gorky. Wang Kong, who established the Sorry Dynasty, eventually reunified the nation. A series of Mongol invasions that began in 1231 devastated the country in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. General Y Song-gee overthrew Sorry and established the Chosen Dynasty in 1392. Despite invasions by Japan and Munch (King) in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, respectively, Chosen continued for more than five centuries until 1910, when Japan colonized the nation for three and a half decades.
Before the 1945 national division of the peninsula and the subsequent establishment of the two political regimes of North and South Korea in 1948, Koreans identified themselves as the people of Chosen. Tanning as the nodding ancestor has had a symbolic meaning for Koreans throughout the nation’s history. A temple erected in Tannin’s honor in 1429 stood in Pyongyang until its destruction during the Korean War. In 1993, North Korea announced the discovery of Tangent’s tomb and a few remains of his skeleton at a site close to Pyongyang. Some calendar year, which the South Korean government officially adopted in 1962.
The rapid changes in lifestyles that have accompanied economic development since the sass have changed the traditional pattern of eating rice at each meal. Some urbanites may eat toast, eggs, and milk for breakfast, using a fork and knife. Nonetheless, for many people a bowl of steamed white rice, a soybean-paste vegetable soup, and a dish of gimmick may still constitute the basic everyday meal, to which steamed or seasoned vegetables, fish, meats, and other foods may be added as side dishes ( paunch’s ). Many people eat at a low table while sitting on the undo floor, using a spoon and chopsticks.
Gimmick is the national dish. It is a pungent, often hot, mixture of fermented and/or pickled vegetables. Almost any vegetable can be fermented to make gimmick, but Chinese cabbage and adagio radishes are the most commonly used. As part of the national diet for centuries, it has many variations depending on the region, season, occasion, and personal taste of the cook. Gimmick has long been the test of a housewife’s culinary skills and a family tradition. A South Korean consumes an average of forty pounds (eighteen kilograms) of gimmick a year.
Many companies produce gimmick for both domestic consumption and export. Meat dishes such as pulling (barbecued meat) and kali (short ribs) are popular among both Koreans and foreigners. They are traditionally charcoal-roasted after the meat has been marinated in soy sauce, sesame oil, sugar, minced garlic, and other spices. The foods available at restaurants range from sophisticated Western cuisine, to various ethnic specialty foods, to both indigenous and foreign fast foods. There are no food taboos, although Buddhist monks may practice vegetarianism and observe other food taboos.
A variety of took (rice cake), other traditional confectionery, and fresh fruits are served to celebrate birthdays, marriages, and the Hawaiian (the sixtieth birthday). The offerings at cherry , memorial services for one’s ancestors performed on special holidays, include rice wine, steamed white rice, soup, barbecued meats, and fresh fruits. After ritual offerings South Korea transformed its traditional agrarian subsistence economy to a primarily industrialized one in little more than a generation. In 1962, when the First Five-Year Economic Development Plan was launched, per capita gross national product was $87 (U.
S. ), in contrast with $10,543 (U. S. ) in 1996. However, rapid increases in short-term debt precipitated by overstatements by chasubles (family-owned and -managed conglomerates) and insufficient foreign exchange reserves caused the financial crisis of 1997, which necessitated emergency financial aid from the International Monetary Fund (MIFF) in December 1997. After a year of rising unemployment, negative economic growth, and reforms of the financial sector in 1998, the economy began to recover. For gross domestic product (GAP) of $406. 7 billion (U. S. , the country ranked thirteenth and for per capita GAP it ranked thirtieth among the world’s nations in 1999. The working- age population (1 5 years or above) numbered 34. 7 million, and 62. 2 percent (21. 6 million) of those people were in the labor force in 1997. More than two thirds of them were employed in the service sector in 1997. South Korea still produces most of its domestically consumed rice. Traditional cash crops such as ginseng, tobacco, tea, and silkworms remain important. The livestock industry raises beef and dairy cattle, hogs, and chickens.
Meat production has increased, largely in response increased pork to Japan, and maintains self-sufficiency in chickens and most vegetable products Traditionally, land, especially farmland, was the main form of wealth, and tenants had customary rights that allowed them to farm the same plots year after year. The land survey and tax structure under colonial rule changed the nature and extent of land tenure, forcing many owner-farmers to sell their land to the Japanese. Some people argue that the violation of tenants’ customary rights predates the Japanese incursion.
The majority of the agricultural population became impoverished, landless tenants by the end of the colonial rule. After the liberation, redistributions of land were effected in 1948, when former Japanese-owned agricultural lands were sold to the incumbent tenants, and in 1950-1952, when the government under the Land Reform Act (promulgated in 1949) acquired tenanted land owned by absentee landlords and the balance of properties larger than 7. 4 acres held by owner-farmers. That property was sold to tenant farmers and those with no land. The imposition of a maximum of three choking (7. Acres) on legal land holdings meant that large-scale landlords were eliminated, and the average farm size became less than 2. 5 acres. The land reform was a political and social success, destroying the colonial landlord class. However, it contributed to a fragmentation of the land into small holdings, making cultivation inefficient and not conducive to mechanization. Since the sass, systematic efforts have been made to increase, rearrange and consolidate farmland by reclaiming mountain slopes and seashores as arable land to expand farm concatenation and increase the utility of farmland.
In 1975, the Arable Land Preservation Law was modified to limit the use of arable land for purposes other than farms. In a country where natural resources are scarce, the efficient use of the land is essential. Government land development projects started in the sass with the 1963 Law on Integrated National Land Development, the 1964 Export Industrial Estates Assistance Law, and the 1967 National Parks Law. Those laws were followed by the 1972 Law on the Management of National Land and the 1973 Law on the Promotion of Industrial Estates.
In addition to the development of large-scale industrial estates at LULAS, Phoning, and elsewhere, a superhighway linking Seoul and Pupas and large- scale water resources development projects such as the Saying Dam were constructed. A basic land price pattern was officially determined to allow an equitable distribution of the profits from land development. Despite a variety of regulations, however, speculation in real estate has been a major device for accumulating wealth rapidly and irregularly. Major Industries. The share of primary industry in the economic structure decreased steadily from 26. Recent in 1970 to 5. 7 percent in 1997. Farm work increasingly is done by women and old men as young people leave for urban Jobs. As a result of structural reforms in the economy, Korea has built a strong industrial foundation, especially in the areas of electronics, automobiles, shipbuilding, and petrochemicals. The shipbuilding industry is second only to Japan’s and has a 32 percent share of the world market. In the semiconductor industry, Korea ranks third in the world market. Three Korean companies supply more than 40 percent of the global demand for computer memory chips.
The Korean automobile and petrochemicals industries rank fifth in the world in terms of production. T The economy is export-oriented and at the same time heavily imports were $119. 8 billion (U. S. ). Korea ranked twelfth for exports and fourteenth for imports among the countries in the world. The major trading partners are the United States and Japan. Since the sass, main export items have included computers, semiconductors, automobiles, steel, shipbuilding, electronic goods, machinery, textiles, and fishery products. Overseas construction is a critical source of foreign currency and invisible export earnings.
Major import items are steel, chemicals, timber and pulp, cereals, petroleum and petroleum products, and electronics and electrical equipment. The current account balance for the first half of 2000 marked a surplus of $4. 4 billion (U. S. ). Leading cacheable companies such as Handy, Samsung, and the LOG Group recruit white-collar workers from among college graduates through the congeals system (an open competitive A farmer hauls rice on his back in Pong Hang, NASA, South Korea. Rice is a staple of the South Korean diet. Written examination and interviews). Smaller companies often rely on social connections to hire employees.
For executive and upper-level management Jobs, companies may scout the desired personnel by using a variety of means, including professional headhunting services. Employment in the civil service, which is based on a grade system, reflects a strong tradition of seniority. Positions are assigned strictly according to grade, and remuneration is based on grade and length of service. Recruitment from outside is allowed only at certain grade levels through the civil service examination system, with age limitations that favor the young. Vacant positions, except at the lowest grade level, are filled mostly by promotions based on seniority.
The tradition of seniority, however, is being challenged as part of the wide-ranging restructuring taking place in the public sector as well as in the financial and corporate sectors as a result of the 1997 economic crisis. Korean personal names traditionally consist of a syllable which is shared by all siblings and cousins of the same generation, plus a syllable unique to the individual. The generational syllable may come before or after the personal syllable (though it will be in the same position for all family members). Some families do this only with boys, while others do it with all of the children.
Most traditional personal names are not gender-specific, although gender stereotyping may influence naming where syllables mean something like “strength,” for example (not seen as a positive quality in women). Women do not take their husband’s name upon marriage, but the children do, and it is common to address a person in terms of a family relationship (e. G. , so-and-co’s mother, father or spouse). There are no information on whether marriage between in-laws was ever illegal, but Koreans have a special word for persons doubly related by marriage (seaboards), which is not regarded in a positive light.
It’s still somewhat stigmatize among more traditional Koreans, who regard marriage as a uniting of families (therefore any subsequent marriage between the same two families seems incestuous). Traditional marriages involve a significant exchange of money gifts, and other financial arrangements (2007 NY Times article). If the families can’t agree on these arrangements, it may be impossible for the couple interpersonal dynamics, and pretty much impossible to translate into subtitles. Understanding this thing about Korean culture will vastly enhance your drama viewing experience.
All young Korean men are required to spend about 2 years in litany service. The requirement does not extend to women, but there is growing interest among women in ROTC training. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SOUTH KOREA This study analyses cultural effects on economic development in South Korea. It introduces the concept of transaction costs as an operational intermediary between culture and economic development. Using this approach, it is found that culture affects economic development through its impacts on transaction costs in the static case and in the dynamic case, through its impacts on the creative capacity of citizens.
To assess the role of culture in future economic development, recent changes in Korean culture are examined. In view of recent changes identified, Korean culture will have a negative effect on the future economy, compared to its positive influence in earlier decades from the sass. Culture is not setters Paramus. Even if all else remains the same, the prospects of the Korean economy will be tainted by the influence of culture. South Koreans economic freedom score is 70. 3, making its economy the 34th freest in the 2013 Index. Its score is 0. Point higher than last year, with declines in labor freedom and monetary freedom offset by gains in the management of public spending and fiscal freedom. South Korea is ranked 8th out of 41 countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Regaining the “mostly free” status that it last enjoyed in the 1998 Index, South Korea has improved its competitiveness by strengthening fiscal fundamentals. A vibrant private sector, bolstered by a well- educated labor force and high capacity for innovation, has capitalized on the country openness to global trade and investment.
South Korea has proactively entered into free trade pacts with leading economies including the United States and the European Union. A sound legal framework is in place to uphold the rule of law. However, corruption continues to undermine the foundations of economic freedom, eroding equity and trust in government. South Koreans long-term economic dynamism will be shaped by the outcome of ongoing debates about the proper scope of government in the free market and welfare policies. Opposition to South Korean President Lee Among-back, blamed for failing to deliver on campaign pledges of exuberant economic growth, has intensified in the past year.
Fueled by legislative and presidential election campaigns ahead of the December 2012 vote, political discourse has revolved around the country widening income gap ND a growing consensus in favor of “social welfare’s. ” Both the ruling conservative and opposition progressive parties have promised ever-growing government programs to gain voters’ favor, drowning out warnings of rising government debt. South Korea, the world’s 1 5th largest economy, has enjoyed decades of impressive economic growth and is a world leader in electronics, telecommunications, automobile production, and shipbuilding.
After years of political debate and stalled legislation, the United States and South Korea have finally approved and implemented a free trade agreement. South Koreans Index values are: PDP=60, DIVIDE=18, MASS=39, Jill=85 and LTO=70. South Koreans highest Hefted Dimension is Uncertainty Avoidance (AJAX) at 85, indicating the society’s low level of tolerance for uncertainty. In an effort to minimize or reduce this level of uncertainty, strict rules, laws, policies, and regulations are adopted and implemented. The ultimate goal of this population is to control everything in order to eliminate or avoid the unexpected.
As a result of this high Uncertainty Avoidance characteristic, the society does not readily accept change and is very risk adverse. South Korea has a low Individualism (DIVIDE) rank of 18. The score on this Dimension indicates the society is Collectivist as compared to Individualist. This is manifest in a close long-term commitment to the member ‘group’, be that a family, extended family, or extended relationships. Loyalty in a collectivist culture is paramount, and over-rides most other societal rules and regulations.
The society fosters strong relationships where everyone takes responsibility for fellow members of their group. As we observed the South Korean people are very careful in all aspects of their lives, they do everything the best possible in order to avoid the risks. With a PDP score = 60, I can say that in this country there is expectation that some individuals have much more power than others. In general, countries with a high power distance are typically more violent. Latin American and Asian nations are ranked the highest in this category while the Scandinavian and Germanic are in the lowest.
Just as most Asian countries, Koreans work collectively, in this point is where I dare to say that one of the factors that has made that these countries have been so successful in recent decades is the teamwork. The accumulation of wealth and material possessions, is almost equally between men ND women of this country, with this I mean that both men and women must worry about the lucrative careers and women can work and study. Turning to the economy of South Africa is important to note that ” Korea, once known to be one of the world’s poorest agrarian societies, has undertaken economic development in earnest since 1962.
In less than four decades, it achieved what has become known as the (Miracle on the Hanging River) ??an incredible process that dramatically transformed the Korean economy while marking a turning point in Koreans history. Korea developed rapidly from the sass, fueled by high savings and investment tastes, and a strong emphasis on education. With a history as one of the fastest growing economies in the world, Korea is working to become the focal point of a powerful Asian economic bloc during the 21st century.
To conclude this point it is important to note and recognize that in Just five decades, this country has developed considerably, and one of the factors that under my point of view is very important is education, I believe that if a country invests good percentage of its GAP on education will have the opportunity to be much more competitive internationally, such as South Korea and other Asian countries. RULE OF LAW Property Rightist. O Freedom from Corruption. O A well-functioning modern legal framework ensures strong protection of private property rights.