Market orientation perspectives include the decision-making perspective (Shapiro, 1 988), market intelligence perspective (Kohl and Gasworks, 1990), culturally based behavioral perspective (Nearer and Slater, Bibb strategic perspective (Rocket, 1992)  and customer orientation perspective (Deckhands et al. , 1993).  The two most prominent conceptualizations of market orientation are those given by Kohl and Gasworks (1990) and Nearer and Slater (1990). While Kohl and Gasworks (1990) considers market orientation as the implementation of the marketing concept, Nearer ND Slater (1990) considers it as an organizational culture.
Kohl and Gasworks (1990) defined market orientation as “the organization-wide generation of market intelligence, dissemination of the intelligence across departments and organization- wide responsiveness to it”  According to them, the marketing concept is a business philosophy, whereas the term market orientation refers to the actual implementation of the marketing concept. They added that “a market orientation appears to provide a unifying focus for the efforts and projects of Individuals and departments within the organization.
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On the other hand, Nearer and Slater (1990) defined market orientation as “the organization culture that most effectively and efficient creates the necessary behaviors for the creation of superior value for buyers and, thus, continuous superior performance for the business. ”  As such, they consider market orientation as an organizational culture consisting of three behavioral components, namely, I) customer orientation, II) competitor orientation and ill) international coordination.
Market orientation measurement scales In order to measure market orientation, the two most widely used scales are MARKO 5] and MAJOR  The major scale is a 1 5-item, 7-point Liker-type scale, with all points specified. In this measure, market orientation is conceptualized as a one dimensional construct, with three components, namely: customer orientation, competitor orientation, and international coordination. The simple average of the scores of the three components is the market orientation score. On the other hand, the Marko scale Is a 20-late, 5-pools Liker scale, with only the ends of the scale specified.