Often, turnover cost affects the organization (Connelly & commonly, 1991; Tracey & Hint, 2008). 62 www. Essence. Org/I]BMW International Journal of Business and Management volt. 8, NO. 5; 2013 This paper identified factors affecting Hospitality labor satisfaction which may lead them to turn over. First, it explored the existing literature about Job satisfaction and remover intention. Second, a brief rehearsal of the Mobile model (1977) applications studying the factors leading to turnover crises is given.
The paper further examined whether Malaysian Hospitality and tourism sector could apply Mobile model to reduce these crises. 2. Methodology This study attempts to review the existing literature on hospitality and tourism employment, working environments, labor turnover, employment factors, employee dissatisfaction, and the causes of turnover crises. The Mobile model (1977) and a theoretical framework interpreting the relationship between work environment, involuntary turnover will also be examined.
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A further review of the effect of turnover crises on the quality of service and customer loyalty will be addressed. To enrich the discussions, the results of the theoretical studies undertaken by the authors have been used. 3. Literature Review 3. 1 Employment Environment This paper is based on conceptual work and the data is from a collection of books and published Journals within the hospitality human resource management to aid in reinterpreting the existing concepts (Chuddar, 1991). Many researchers have studied the impacts of work satisfaction on hospitality employees. Bahrain & Butt, 2012) evaluated the challenges in hospitality organizations and its overall impact on labor. According to Davies et al. (2001), performance appraisals, remunerations and training are important human resource practices in Australian hotels. They asserted that the commitment to an organization could be better when adapting a suitable HER system; improving good labor relations and quality of service. Leaver and Kristin-Brown (2001) investigated the unique relationship and impacts of person-Job and person-organization suitability on Job satisfaction and the intent to quit.
Job satisfaction is defined as the influential reaction to different forms of a Job or organization (Locke, 1976). Some practitioners clarified the dimensions of organizational Justice in the relevant literature. Three dimensions were studied: distributive, procedural, and international (Cohen-Crash & Specter, 2001; Reardon, 2003). Many scholars were in favor of the Justice dimensions with regard to employees’ satisfaction, commitment toward the organization, and the intent to turn over (Hemi & Mood, 2007).
A literature scan of hospitality and tourism management discovered that Job satisfaction, organizational obligation, and turnover intentions are the results of organizational Justice dimensions (Fulfill, 2005; Hemi & Mood, 2007; Nadir’ & Tanana, 2010). Other scholars have examined the impacts of Job satisfaction on employee turnover within the Mari Hotels in Thailand (Rona & Chattiest, 2010 ). They observed the relationship between employee satisfaction and their overall satisfaction giving suggestions to help reduce the turnover rate. Webb et al. (2010) evaluated the literature of previous scholars on employee retention.
Work stress continues to gain the attention of many researchers. They have focused on the types of stress and the seasons which led the employees to acquire stress in their work environment. Researchers have also employed strategies to confront stress (Pipestone, 1992). Work stress, burnout, and labor turnover have become commonly known words in the study of human resources (Bane et al. , 2005; Sahara et al. , 2010). Researchers have asserted that there are direct and indirect costs of work stress which could lead to the crucial problems of labor, employers, and the community (Matheson & Evangelic, 1982).
Therefore, because of the financial and moral effects on hospitality organizations, many 63 researchers have focused on these issues in the last few decades. Researchers such as (Curia et al. , 2012) studied the internal and external causes of employee turnover in Kenya hotels located in Nairobi. They directed their attention to the work umbrage, unfavorable working conditions, stress, long working hours with minimal wages, and poor training programs. (Seta et al. , 2000) indicated the factors affecting employees ‘ satisfaction, and the organization’s role to enhance an employees’ commitment toward the organization.
They argued that proper training, work progress, and compensation could improve employees ‘ satisfaction toward the organization. According to (Fair, 1992; Skived & Go, 1996; Shaw, 2011) the inadmissible, high labor turnover rate, content may shape the relationship between turnover rates and performance reduction in human capital. Scholars such as (Angel & Canella, 2004) asserted that the wage factor produced the major intent for turnover. They mentioned that the Yelled (1984) model can be integrated the with turnover theories. Other practitioners,