When the invisible or inner self, atman, merges with Brahmas, they experience unspeakable peace and bliss. The risks taught that the soul leaves the odd and enters a new one called reincarnation, in which one takes birth again, either animal or of some other form, but self remains the same. Our actions and the consequences of our actions that can determine our future experiences in life is a related concept called karma that can follow us after physical death, affecting our next incarnation.
The ultimate goal in Hinduism, not the creation of good lives by good deeds is a continuous cycle of birth, death, and rebirth called samara to escape from the karma. To escape the continuous cycle of samara, one was to achieve monks, a liberation from the limitations of space, time and matter through realization of immortal Absolute. The Samara system is a major Hindu philosophical system in which human suffering is characterized as stemming from the false confusion of Portrait with Pursues, the eternal Self.
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In Gymkhana Humiliation’s, Portrait was the cosmic substance and Pursues was the eternal Self. While Samara was a dualistic system, Davit Pedant was a non-dualistic system that is monistic, positing a single reality, based on the Pinheads, which is the philosophical part of the Veda in Hinduism, intended only for the serious seekers. The people of the Indian subcontinent practiced spiritual disciplines designed to clear the mind and increase the Asiatic qualities that refers to the union with the true Self called yoga. 2.
Describe major Hindu ritual practices: Brahmins, Vishnu, Siva, the Mother Goddess, Tantrums, women’s roles, linsang, Ram, Krishna, PUC, darns, Parkas. Rituals worships are called pupas are performed by the Brahmins priests who are trained in Vided practices and in proper recitation of Sanskrit texts that conducts worship ceremonies in which the sacred presence is made tangible through devotions employing al the ensues. People that are spiritually devoted to their rituals receives the blessings of visual contact with the divine called darns through the eyes of the images.
The food that has been sanctified by being offered to the deities and one’s guru is Parkas which is passed around to be eaten by those devoted spiritually, who experience it as sacred and spiritually charged. Siva is the Lord of the dance, trampling on the demon he has killed, reconciling darkness and light, good and evil, creation and destruction, rest and activity in the eternal dance of life. Siva is also the god of yogis, for he homebodies asceticism. Vishnu is beloved as the merciful Supreme deity that has earthly incarnation was Ram, a Hindu prince of the epic play of good and evil called Ramadan.
Krishna can take on many forms as a god. If Krishna is the transcendent Supreme Lord, the Whitehorse lower himself or herself, Krishna, the master, devotee, the servant, Krishna, loved as a child, devotee takes the role of the parent, Krishna, the beloved, devotee is his liver. Tantrums are sacred texts that instructs worshipers how to honor the feminine divine, and linsang are the cylindrical stones in sculptured form that represents the manifestation of Siva. The Mother Goddess is worshipped by Stats- a Hindu worshiper of the female aspect of the deity.
Women plays a big role in Hinduism as well as being major contributors to good earthly life which includes order of society called dharma, bearing sons in a patriarchal society, and the aesthetics of sensual pleasure. They are associated with wealth, beauty, splendor, and grace. They participate in ceremonial sacrifices with their husbands as well as being spiritual partners. The woman’s role is linked to that of her husband, ho takes the position of her god and teacher. 3. How did Sandhog’s argue against intractability, against Hindu tradition and law? What did he rename untouchable and why?
Untouchable was considered the lowest caste in the Hindu society and was labeled outcasts because of the occupations they had. Gandhi argued against intractability and attacked the social injustices in the 19th century and changing the name to harridans meaning “the children of God”, in which the stigma of intractability was abolished in 1948. Discussion Questions (Peg. 119) 1 . How can Hinduism embrace such a wide continuum of contradictory social levels and practices- universalism and simultaneously its divisive caste system, treatment of women, and exclusivity nationalism?
The people of Hinduism should pay attention to the laws in the Code of Mann that was complied in 100 C. E. That governed all aspects of life. This code should continue to be applied today in the life of Hinduism, not only Just concerning the caste system, but it should be observed for the women as well, because women do play an important role in all society. The Hindus identity and beliefs should also be recognized universality rather than exclusiveness. 2. How can Hinduism embrace such a wide continuum of contradictory views of the relation of spirit and body- severe Saudi asceticism and elaborate, sensuous images of gods and goddess?
The four goals that define the good life of Hinduism of Assonant Dharma should continue to be recognized. Like all religious beliefs, Hinduism should be respected as other religious beliefs are respected. 3. Can and should Hinduism beliefs and practices be reconciled with modern society? Discuss reincarnation, karma, Pedant, charms, polytheism, asceticism, darns, gurus, reverence for trees and rivers, caste, universalism. Hinduism beliefs and practices can and should be reconciled with modern industrial society as long as it is kept in perspective.
Hinduism is becoming more global through autobiographies, movements, industrial parks, tourism hospitality complexes and planetarium near global headquarters of SISKIN in India. Reincarnation is when one’s dies, the soul leaves the body and enters another, karma is the actions and the consequences of those actions in this life and the future, Pedant is a non-dualistic system that is monistic, also related to the Veda, charms is the subtle energy that is at the center of the spine.
This energy is performed person is in self-denial, darns is the visual contact with the divine, gurus are spiritual teachers, reverence for trees and rivers are that some practice worship under certain tress that are sacred and some people pray before taking holy baths in rivers that are sacred, caste is an occupational category based on wealth and birth, and universalism is that the truth may be found in all religions. Chapter 5- Buddhism Review Questions (Peg. 181) 1 . Tell the story of the Buddha enlightenment.
Examine the Four Noble Truths, thoughtful Path, the Middle Way, and freedom from delusions. The Buddha name was Shattered Augusta meaning “wish- fuller” or “he who has reached his goal”. Shattered was born and raised in luxury, trained in martial arts, and had one wife and a son. He wanted for nothing, but was not convinced of how good his life was. His father hid the “four sights” from him which the gods arranged for him to see. The four sights were a bent old man, a sick person, a dead person, and a mendicant seeking lasting happiness rather than temporal pleasure.
Shattered gave up his marriage, his wealth and left his son, Rural, shaved his head and reseed like a wandering ascetic in pursuit of finding, the way to total liberation from suffering. He led the life of a assassin, a renunciation spiritual seeker. He studied under several different Brahmins teachers, one who helped him reach a higher mental state, but still was unsatisfied. He underwent six years of self-denial techniques which were nakedness, exposure to heat and cold, breath retention, a bed of brambles, and fasting.
Shattered moved his practice to a Middle Way that rejected self-indulgence and self-denial. After his health had once failed, he began accepting food and a period of reflection. He finally experienced supreme awakening after sitting in a deep meditation beneath a tree in the village of Booth Gay. He realized the cause of suffering and the means for ending it through the wheels of repeated death and rebirth. After this enlightenment, Shattered was again radiant with light. He then started teaching and walking with followers, telling them about his past experiences.
Later he became Known as “Shamanic Buddha” the sage of the Shaky clan”. The Four Noble Truths are suffering and frustration, suffering originates in our desires, suffering will cease if all desire ceases and following a path f morality, concentration and wisdom. The Eightfold Path is the final escape from the cycle of death and rebirth and obtaining the peace of nirvana, right understanding, right though of motives, right speech, right action, right livelihood, cutting off unwholesome state in the past, present, and future, right mindfulness, and right meditation.
The Middle Way rejected both self-indulgence and self-denial. 2. Describe the main similarities and the important differences of the Tetrahedral, Mahayana and Vagrancy traditions. Describe their geographical development and name and quote a main text in each tradition. The main similarities of the Tetrahedral, Mahayana, and Vagrancy traditions are they schools for the Buddha teachings and are in agreement about the Four Noble Truths, the Eightfold Path and the teaching s about karma, samara, and nirvana.
The important differences of all three is that the Buddha school known as Tetrahedral (“Way of the Elders”) is the only school that and follows meditation teaching. The Buddhist school, Mahayana (“Great Vehicle”) unhappiness the practice of compassion and wisdom both monastic and laypeople toward the goal of liberating all sentient beings from suffering and the Buddhist school, Vagrancy (The Ultimate Vehicle”) used in Mahayana, mainly Tibetan, Buddhism, consisting of esoteric titanic practices an concentration on deities.
The Tetrahedral tradition studies a large collection of writings called Pail Canon. This collection is also preferred to as the Tapioca, “Three Baskets” because there are three collections of sacred writings: rules of monastic discipline, Dharma teachings, and scholastic treatises stored in a wicker baskets. Mahayana tradition studies a text called the Lotus Sutra that claims there was a higher goal than the archon’s achievement of liberation, namely, to aspire to become a bodhisattva (a being who is dedicated to liberating others from suffering) and work to achieve the perfect enlightenment of a Buddha.
The Vagrancy tradition is that monks and laypeople alike meditate on thanks and Mandalay, visual aids to concentration and illumination, which portray Buddha and bodhisattva in a diagram representing an ideal universe. 3. Explain the trends in Buddhism today. Explore meditation, women, and social engagement. North Americans and Europeans countries are vibrant centers of Buddhism. Scholars are studying Buddhism in universities, people are interested in learning the Buddhist meditation practices, and women from many countries have received full ordination as Buddhist nuns at Body Gay.
Discussion Questions (Peg. 181) 1 . What are the major similarities and differences between Hinduism and Buddhism? Why do you think these developed? The similarities between Hinduism and Buddhism are they both deals with Dharma. In Hinduism, dharma is moral order, righteousness, and religion, and in Buddhism, dharma is the doctrine or laws as revealed by the Buddha and also the correct conduct for each person according to his or her level of awareness. Both emphasize the illusory nature of the world and the role of karma in keeping men bound to this world and the cycle of births and death.
They also believe in spiritual practices like meditation, concentration, cultivation of certain behaviors or state of minds. The differences are that Hinduism is not founded by a prophet and Buddhism was founded be Buddha. Hinduism believe in the existence of Atman, the individual soul and Brahmas, the Supreme Creator and Buddhism does not believe in the existence of souls. Hinduism accepts Buddha as a incarnation of Knavish, one of the gods of the Hindu trinity and Buddhism d not accept any Hindu gods either as equilateral or superior to Buddha.
These develop because of their differences in culture, background and motivation and the people of each religion were raised with different beliefs. 2. What reality do Buddhists refer to as most important? What is it name? How is it different from theism? Is this difference important? Most Buddhist accepts the fact that Buddha lived, taught and founded a monastic order and that the Buddha revealed the reality of delectableness and his name was Shattered Augusta. Buddhism is considered a elision although it is described as a spiritual philosophy and theism is the belief that one deity does exists.
To some Buddhist, this is important because to them there is no personal God who creates the world or to whom prayers can be directed. 3. Proper role for Buddhism in Western society because the Western Buddhists tend to be oriented to the gal of achieving enlightenment by their own efforts, and are searching for ways to achieve that goal, but sometimes the effort can be at a minimum. Buddhism is evolving in new directions, with some Westerners remaking Buddhism in their own image.