The glamorous lifestyles depicted by entertainers along with the sexual overtones ay seem exciting to adolescents. The excitement adolescents experience when viewing sexual content may also be heightened due to the media’s under- representation of negative consequences from sexual activities (Brown et al. , 2006). This study alms to know If Mass Medal has an effect on the Sexual Behavior of Selected BBS Broadcasting Students of Laguna State Polytechnic university Sat. Cruz Campus Academic Year 2012-2013. Background of the Study Sexual Intercourse among adolescents has become a prevalent acuity, which can produce life long consequences.
Adolescence Is a time when Individuals are striving o define themselves and seek Independence regardless of emotional and physical maturity (Brown ; Weatherperson, 2002). It is during this time when adolescents may be especially susceptible to depictions of sexual content in the media. It should prompt health care providers, namely the advanced practice nurse, to examine what can be done to prevent or delay sexual behavior among adolescents for their own benefit and their partner’s (Hall, Holsters & Sherry, 2004).
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An adolescent’s consumption of sexual content in the media seems to be a key factor when examining media influence on an adolescent’s decision to become sexually active. The amount of sexual content in the media consumed by the adolescent seems to be the key factor when examining its influence. When media portrays risk-free sexual behaviors and no messages of safe sex, an adolescent may find It appealing to Initiate sexual Intercourse. A study by Collins et al. (2004) only displayed in 14% of television programs.
If the majority of sexual content portrayed in the media tends only to portray individuals having a good time and never showing the realities of unplanned pregnancies or Stud’s, being sexually active may seem appealing to adolescents. When mass media does not show the consequences for sexual activities, individuals may not be aware or may minimize the seriousness of the consequences. Adolescence is a time when the individual is usually not fully mature and cannot differentiate in the media between acting and real life (Cobras-Shaves et al. , 2005).
When sexual activity is mostly portrayed as a common behavior that can be done with little thought for emotional or physical repercussions, adolescents might see it as the thing to do. Collins et al. (2004) has identified the phenomena of media cultivation, which is the initiation of sexual activity resulting from TV portraying sex as a focus of daily life when it may not be the reality. In sight of this, the researcher was encouraged to pursue this study to determine the effects of Mass Media on the Sexual Behavior of Selected BBS Broadcasting Students of Laguna State Polytechnic University Sat.
Cruz Campus Academic Year 2012-2013. Theoretical Framework This study is connected to Shaffer ; Barman’s theory of Sexuality in which they emphasizes the importance of romantic relationship and development of sexuality . Shaffer & Barman’s states that “It almost seems unnecessary to say hat romantic relationships play a key role in the development of sexuality. Certainly, sexual behavior often occurs in brief encounters, as adolescents, “hook-up” with each other for an evening.
Additionally, sexual behaviors, particularly mild forms of sexual behavior, commonly occur with friends with whom adolescents are not romantically involved. Nevertheless, casual or committed romantic relationship are primary context for sexual behavior and learning about sexuality. ” In applying Shaffer ; Barman’s theory of Sexuality, one is advised And suggested to keep in mind: aside from the idea that romantic relationships are a remarry context for the development of sexuality, peers and parent has a big influence than romantic partners.
Yet, it is difficult to believe that the partner and the nature of the relationship do not play critical roles in determining sexual behavior and in determining what is learned in the experiences. Conceptual Framework The structure depicts the effect of Mass Media on the Teens Sexual Behavior. Figure 1. It consist of independent variable which refers to the Mass Media in terms of Television, Radio, and Print Media and the dependent variable which refers to Sexual Behavior as to Morality, Behavior and Awareness of Teens. SEXUAL BEHAVIOR * Morality * Behavior * Awareness MASS MEDIA * Television * Radio * Print Media Figure 1 .
Research Paradigm of the Study Statement of the Problem This study general purpose was to determine the effects of Mass Media on the Sexual Behavior of Selected BBS Broadcasting Students of Laguna State Polytechnic University Sat. Cruz Campus Academic Year 2012-2013. Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions: 1 . What is the frequency level of Mass Media in terms of: 2. 2 Radio; 2. 3 punt Media? 2. What is the effect of Sexual Behavior in terms of; 3. 4 Morality 3. 5 Behavior . 6 Awareness? 2. 1 Television; 3. Is there any significant effect of Mass Media on the Teens Sexual Behavior?
Research Hypothesis Mass Media has no significant effect on the Sexual Behavior of Selected BBS Broadcasting Students of Laguna State Polytechnic University Sat. Cruz Campus Academic year 2012-2013. Significance of the Study This will generally benefit the following: Future Researchers For the future researchers, the data contained in this in this study may serve as a Teachers For the professors, this would also provide necessary data for their teaching strategies and approaches. Students This study will benefit the student who wants to know more about the things related to the study.
Scope and Limitations of the Study This study was focused on the effects of mass media on the Sexual Behavior of Selected BBS Broadcasting Students of Laguna State Polytechnic University Sat. Cruz Campus Academic Year 2012-2013. It did not seek to include all young ones whose not yet facing this kind of behavior. Definition of Terms To give the readers a better and similar understanding of the text, the researcher had provided the following definitions: Sexual Behavior. This refers to actions, engage or visual materials which specifically refer to, portray or involve sexual activity or language. Morality. Prefers to ethical issues principles of right and wrong conduct. It is also about to the code of conduct that is put forward by a society and distinguished from etiquette, law, and religion. Behavior. Refers to the attitudes of the students in terms of morality and awareness. Awareness. This refers to the familiarity with trends/issues on media, additional knowledge and information. Mass Media. The dissemination of information even entertainment to the masses. Television. The most powerful media among radio and print, which can affect almost everything. Radio. Effective source of information because of its characteristics.
Print Media. Refers to any published reading materials used to disseminate information. Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents the review of related literature and studies. Sexual Behavior Sexual behavior includes masturbation, courtship, mating, astral display. And it is a person’s sexual practices, whether he/she engages in heterosexual or homosexual activity. It is pertaining to behavior involved in the reproductive and mating process or attracting a mate). https://nondenominational. Defenestration. Com/sexual *behavior Sexual desire is a prerequisite for enjoyable sexual activity.
Desire is defined here as conscious thought about or interest in sexual activity. Desire is the psychological manifestation of an interaction between biological factors, cognitive factors, learned behavior, and past experience. An important premise of the biophysically model is that characteristics of the person’s social network influence sexual expression (Delegated & Sill, 2005). According to the book of John Delegated, PhD and Sara M. Norman MS from the University of Wisconsin, Madison (Sexual Behavior in Later Life) In the present book, the term “human sexual behavior” is used both in a wider and a narrower sense.
In the wider sense, it simply means everything people do as sexual beings. Among other things, this covers the way in which they perform their masculine and feminine gender roles and how they choose and approach their sexual partners. This usage may be vague, but it is widely accepted and generally understood. Therefore it does not present any serious problem. Today both boys and girls are now “entering puberty at least two years earlier than previous generations. This means they are ready for sex earlier physically, but not emotionally or cognitively. Factors that correlate with teen sexual activity include: Individual-??having a history of sexual abuse, depression, heavy alcohol or drug use. Family-??living in a single parent or stepparent household, living in a poor household, having parents with permissive values about sexual activity, having little supervision from parents, having siblings who are sexually active, feeling unloved, unwanted, or not respected by parents. And Community-??having friends who are sexually active, having few positive experiences at school, living in a neighborhood with poor neighborhood monitoring. Www. Wisped. Com According to the study of MICHELE L. HOBART, M. P. H. , Ph. D. 1, and KIMBERLY J. MITCHELL, Ph. D. 2 (Exposure to Internet Pornography among Children and Adolescents: A National Survey) Adolescent sexual development is complex and dynamic. As children get older, they gain a greater sense of their sexual self, enhanced by an interplay of biological and social changes as the individual matures through childhood into adolescence. Although puberty begins at different ages, virtually all boys and girls have started the process by 14 years of age.
Sexual interest increases with age and biological changes, with the average age of first sex experience in the United States being 15. 8 years. Expression of sexual curiosity spans a continuum of behaviors, from talking about sex, looking at sexual materials, to actually engaging in sexual activity. Although sexual activity can represent risks in and of itself (e. G. , sexually transmitted diseases). Compared to delayed sexual activity, early sexual activity has been linked to a greater number of sexual partners reanimated diseases (Miller, Cain, Rogers, Grille, &Turner, 1999).
The above statement had a relation to the study in a sense that it explained how people do/act according to their sexual behavior. Morality According to Audit (2005) ethics is the philosophical study of morality. The word is also commonly used interchangeably with “morality’ to mean the subject matter of this study; and sometimes it is used more narrowly to mean the moral principles of a particular tradition, group, and individual. Brad (2009) explained without a belief I and a love for God, you cannot establish a totally moral society.
The reason for this is that without God, men simply have no defense against the errors, temptations, and pitfalls of this world and most of them quickly fall into sin. God is the only firm basis for morality. And human kind as a race must see that before there is to be any ultimate improvement in human behavior. God will eventually tire of men shunning him, and will draw the earth to a close, taking only the good people with him to heaven. Aquinas (2008) cited that the happy person is one who expresses complete virtue in his activities, with an adequate supply of external goods, not Just for anytime but or a complete life.
There are two kinds of sin, a sin in doing something wrong (a sin of commission) and in not doing what we ought to do (a sin of omission). Atkinson (2001) stated that morality must precede understanding cause understanding values have been formed. So the early values are the most important as they become the parent of all subsequent values. According to Rutherford (2008) we understand as a sense of right and wrong that is born out of group-wide systems of conflict management based on shared values. A human being is part of the universe, a part limited in time and space.
We experience ourselves, our thoughts and feelings as something separate from the rest. A kind of optical delusion of consciousness. The true value of a human being is determined by the measure and the sense in which they have obtained liberation from the self. We shall require a substantially new manner of thinking if humanity is to survive (Rutherford 2008) Pigged (2003) discussed the child is someone who constructs his own moral world view, who forms ideas about right and wrong, and fair and unfair, that are not the direct product of adult teaching and that are often maintained in the face of adult sizes to the contrary.
The above statement had a relation to the study in a sense that it explained on how the people get moral values on what they observed to their environment and especially faith in God. Behavior Motivation is the basic drive of all our actions. Motivation refers to the dynamics of our behavior, which involves our needs, desires, and ambitions in life. Achievement motivation is based on reaching success and achieving all of our aspirations in life. Achievement goals can affect the way a person performs a task and represent a desire to show competence (Lad 2008).
The social environment as objectified behavior, this social environment is not wholly external to man, however much our language may sometimes have seemed to conventions, folkways, mores, philosophy, science, and the like, is carried about by individuals, as well as by books and other inanimate carriers of symbols. The farther back we go in the history of mankind the larger the portion of the psycho-social environment we find actually existing in the immediate behavior of individuals (Bernard 2006).
Social psychology is the scientific study of how people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others. By this definition, scientific refers to the empirical method of investigation. The terms thoughts, feelings, behaviors include all of the psychological variables that are measurable in a human being. The statement that others may be imagined or implied suggests that we are prone to social influence even when no other people are present, such as when watching television, or following internalized cultural norms (Hillary 2004).
Rumen (2006) behavior becomes in many forms-blinking, eating, reading, dancing, shooting, and warning. Behavior that is peculiarly social is oriented towards other selves. Such behavior apprehends another as a perceiving, thinking, moral, intentional, and behaving person. Freeman and Heron (2001) An individual feels and behaves is influenced by the way he/she structures his/her experiences. Personality development is all about your individualism and how you control your emotions to act in a way that is most beneficial for you.
When we think and analyze how people around us behaved or reacted, we are in a way trying to assess how their personalities are, without really knowing what we are doing. A personality is built up y the kinds of thoughts and feelings we have within us that can result in a particular behavior (Lad 2008). The above statement was relevant to the study in the sense that it explained the purpose of the study that media and society can affect the way of thinking of an individual on what they see in Mass Media whether in television, radio, print media or even in internet and condition of the environment where he/she belongs.
Awareness Grover (2003) cited that awareness is the first step in the creation process. As you grow in self awareness, you will better understand why you feel what you feel and why you behave as you behave. That understanding then gives you the opportunity and freedom to change those things you’d like to change about yourself and create the life you want. Without fully knowing who you are, self acceptance and change become impossible. Finley (2007) stated that self-observation is a way of being fully aware of yourself that includes being watchful of any self concern that comes up as a result of what you see in yourself.
In this unique psychological posture you remain effortlessly apart from all wrong concerns, because, should any of them arise, they are treated as Just meeting else you are seeing, not as something you are. Desman (2009) described that awareness may vary in intensity as out total state changes, but it is usually a constant. Awareness cannot itself be observed, it is not an object not a thing. Indeed, it is featureless, lacking form, texture, color, spatial, than the contents of the mind; it goes beyond sensation, emotions, and memory.
Awareness at a different level, it is prior to contents, more fundamental, it has no intrinsic content, no form, no surface characteristics, it is unlike everything else we experience, unlike objects, sensations, emotions, and thoughts or memories. Quipped and Contractor (2003) explained the cultural awareness becomes central when we have to interact with people from other cultures. People see, interpret and evaluate things in a different ways. What is considered an appropriate behavior in one culture is frequently inappropriate in another one.
Misunderstanding arises when someone is using his meanings to make sense of reality. Wagner and Avalanche (2008) based on their study that people can become aware of any social entity either as perspective that guides awareness, or as a target on which awareness can focus. People can become aware of self, others, or groups as ell. These various forms of social awareness make it possible to represent not only self-awareness, but such phenomena as self representation and group identification.
According to Google awareness refers to having knowledge of; “he had no awareness of his mistakes”; “his sudden consciousness of the problem he faced” The above literatures explained how the environment affects an individual in many factors such as sexual behavior, morality and awareness. That is the reason why they become aware of what is happenings to the society. Mass Media According to Sera (2003) the television is often described as a technological biophysicist medium through which advertisers seeks the largest possible audience in order to sell products.
As Pope John Paul II (1997) explained that it is nor easy to remain optimistic about the positive influence of the mass media. He also said that it is hard , particularly for parents to guide their children from unwholesome messages and to ensure their education comes about in a way that it is appropriate to their age and to their developing sense of right and wrong. Johnson (2003) stated that television in the lives of young ones not only requires no skills but develop no skills. Poor school performance maybe linked to heavy T.
V. Viewing. Gavin (2003) warned that T. V. Could negatively affect young ones, provide wrong models of behavior and affects person’s behavior and attitude, and can influence a person’s thinking. Fajita (2003) on her article on Mass Media Education the indirect and direct influence of it. Studies showed that many crimes in society are indirect influence of mass media. The proliferation of pornographic materials seen everyday in our newspapers/tabloids are very accessible and affordable to all.
Nevertheless, mass Edie could also be a powerful influence on our families for educational, cultivation of good moral conduct, our culture, teach love of country, physical development and sports and spiritual needs of the people. Guttered (2003) who have examined the effects of media is both more limited and more complex than that when they reinforce rather change and channels attitudes and opinions consistent with the psychological make-up of the person and the social structure of the groups with which he/she identifies. Minimally related to the present study for they corroboratively commented the effects f mass media on the sexual behavior especially television, radio, and printed media. Television Television Broadcasting has a large amount of control over the content society watches and the time in which it is viewed. Television broadcasting (experimentally from 1952, commercial from the sass): this video-programming medium was long-awaited by the general public and rapidly rose to complete with its order radio-broadcasting sibling.
October 23, 1953 marked the first television broadcasting in the Philippines. James Linden, an American engineer and the father of television, saw the attention of television in the county. On June 13, 1946, armed with surplus equipment and imported spare parts, Lindbergh assembled transmitters and established the Boliviano Electronics Corporation, named after Boliviano, Panamanian the hometown of his wife. In 1953, Judge Squiring introduced the first television station in the Philippines when he opened DAZE-TV Channel 3.
The television station had its first broadcast on October 23 of the same year. Finally, on October 23, 1953, everything was ready, and first television broadcast went on the air. (www. Wisped. Org. Com) William Belton and Munson examined the relationship between television and delinquent behavior. He noted that the evidences was strongly supported by the hypothesis that in the long term of exposure to sex increase the degree to which young ones engage in pre-marital sex.
As to Broadcast Code of the Philippines 2007, article II section 2, at least fifteen percent (15%) of a TV Station’s daily airtime should be devoted to programs suitable for viewing by young ones. The above literature was related in a sense that, what they see on any kinds of media influenced their attitude or behavior that they had, which was also contributed o the ideas presented in the study. Radio Radio is relatively inexpensive way of reaching people. It has often been called the “theater of the mind” because voices or sounds can be use to create moods or images that, if created by visual effects, would be impossible to afford.
In the Philippines, radio has been and still remains the most dominant and influential media because of its characteristics such as radio appeals to imagination, its immediacy as an incomparable rapid vehicle of information and in being portable, does not require literacy, does not require full attention of listener and its being imperatively cheap and simple to operate. Radio, despite being by far the oldest broadcast media, and still having the largest audiences globally of any media – has suffered from many years of relative neglect in academic media studies. Peter Lewis 2003) According to Radio Studies of Stephen Lax, the field of radio studies has undergone something of a resurgence in recent years. More radio is taught at universities and colleges than ever before, and the past three decades have witnessed growing numbers of scholarly works devoted to radio research while more Journals now publish articles on radio. The emergence of two States in 1991 and the United Kingdom’s Radio Journal in 2003, is both an indicator and consequence of this renewal.
This rather late discovery of one of the oldest mass media reflects a tendency within media and communication studies to elevate the role of audiovisual media in comparison with audio. Wendy 2000, though more than a decade old now, remains one of the most comprehensive and considered accounts of radio, while the fact that Lewis and Booth 1989 remains available from the publishers after three decades demonstrates a maturing of the field, to the extent that Lacey 2008 suggests a risk of radio studies becoming too introspective.
Radio is the transmission and reception of electromagnetic waves of radio frequency, esp.. Those carrying sound messages. Www. Wisped. Org. Com The information above was associated to the present study because it tackles about the importance of radio as a medium of mass media. Print Media The print media include all news papers, news letters, booklet, pamphlets, magazine, and other printed publications, especially those disseminated information, news, advertising or even entertainment.
Print media provides more details, more human interest stories about the evolution, more in-depth analysis, and certain leading provide a more permanent record of the times to which people can refer their grand children with pride in the years to come. Print media is an all-encompassing term to describe printed information, such as magazines, newspapers and brochures. Nearly all print media has an online component, such as a website or a blob, to provide additional supplementary information.
In the past few years, some print news publications have moved online to reduce printing expenses. https://www. Owe. Com/info_8475709_studies-related- print-media. HTML A textbook is a manual of instruction or a standard book in any branch of study. They are produced according to the demand of educational institutions. Although most textbooks are only published in printed format, many are now available as online electronic -books (textbook, 2008).
According to the book “Print Media and Journalism” by And, Charles “Print Media – a medium that disseminates printed matter, medium – a means or instrumentality for storing or communicating information to public, press – the gathering and publishing of news in the form of newspapers or magazines. Mass communication onboard readers on a daily basis in the form of both print and electronic media. While each of these types of mass communication has its own character, they both share much in common.
In fact, the newspaper industry relies on both print and electronic media to disseminate news to its readership base. https://www. Owe. Com/ about_5548825_print-media-vs.-electronic-media. HTML The related literature was conducted by the researcher mentioned above gave considerations on the use of print media as an influential form of mass media both were tackled. Related Studies “There seems to be a relationship between engagement in online and offline