Having examined these and some other questions, I came to a conclusion that today more than ever earlier a hot topic of the term paper chosen by me: “Advertising in a complex of marketing communications”. The purpose of my work: Analysis television and radio advertising in the tourism sphere. Work task: To study features of advertising in the tourism sphere To consider types of tourist advertising To analyses television and a radio advertising of tourist services in Chalkiness region; To give an assessment of efficiency of its use from the point of view of the maximum target audience.
As using statistical data, I decided to show current situation today and development prospects. If to tell, generally, about the question brought up by me connected with development of advertising of tourist services, it is possible to note the following tendencies: The last ten years in connection with growth of welfare of travel surely occupied one of leading places in the list of expenses of the population.
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To the group of companies, tourist services working at the Russian market, belong not only tour operators, but also advertising agencies which help to create and extend advertising n television, radio, in the press, etc. After all advertising is the most considerable product which induces the consumer to acquire goods of that producer which name is displayed in advertising. 1 . Advertising in a complex of marketing communications 1. 1 . Concept of marketing communications Marketing communications represent information transfer process about goods of target audience.
It is necessary to understand that any firm isn’t able to operate at once on all markets, satisfying thus inquiries of all consumers. On the contrary, the company will succeed only in case it is aimed at such market which clients with the retreat probability will be interested in its marketing program. The target audience represents group of people who receive marketing addresses and have opportunity to react to them. Any person who promotes success of the company or advance of its goods is called as the participant of marketing process.
Therefore it is possible to call the participant of marketing process the staff of firm, sellers of its production, suppliers, inhabitants of territories where goods are made, mass media, bodies of state regulation of commercial activity and buyers. Now with increase in a role of information both in society development as a whole, ND in the economic sphere, in particular, the importance of effective management of communication processes – information transfers from a source to the recipient with the minimum losses increases. 1. 2.
Advertising in terms of marketing communications. In the Federal law “About advertising” which is accepted by the State Dumas of 14. 06. 95, the following definition of advertising is given: Advertising – extended in any form, by means of any means information on the natural or legal entity, goods, ideas and undertakings advertising information which is intended for an uncertain circle of people and is urged to form or maintain interest o this natural, legal entity, ideas and undertakings and to promote realization of these goods. Advertising is a tool of the market. In essence, it gives opportunity to sell to the potential consumer of the message about a product, service, undertaking. And so that to prefer this product, this service by all by another. At the heart of advertising – information and belief. ” 1. 3. Advertising feature in the tourism sector In the conditions of the unstable tourist market in Russia it is very important to be distinguished from a great number of competitors.
Advertising in tourism is even ore important as people getting a tourist package up to the end can’t be sure of quality of provided services, only upon end of rest will be able to express the opinion. In this area advertising is urged to create a favorable image in consciousness of potential consumers. At the first acquaintance to the buyer bright memorable advertising is necessary. Advertising which will be allocated from the first. Advertising is the most expensive part of marketing campaign, and, of course, each head of the company wants that money wasn’t spent for nothing.
For this purpose also there is an analysis of efficiency of advertising activity. To have system idea of advance of a tourist product, it is necessary to define, first of all, it is part of that in essence. The advertising campaign includes a complex of the advertising and other actions united by common goals and tasks, coordinated on time of the carrying out, calculated on target group. The purpose of an advertising campaign (including prestige advertising) is ensuring advance of a product in the market of services and receiving stable profit.
Relevance of this subject, consists that in the conditions of the being formed tourist market of Russia the importance is even to information and advertising activity as to means of finishing of various data on a tourist product (routes, programs, objects of visit, the price) to the mass consumer. Considering competitive nature of tourist activity in the supply and demand market, value of a factor of advanced considerably increases. Also I would like to note distinctive features of advertising of means of marketing communications in the tourism sphere.
They are defined both specifics of advertising, and features of the tourist industry and its goods of a tourism product, namely: Uncertainty from the point of view of effect measurement. This feature is logical continuation previous. Feedback in advertising activity has probabilistic character. The fact of acquisition of a tourist product depends on a large number of the factors which often don’t have a direct bearing on advertising, having subjective character and almost not giving in to formalization; Complexity.
On impression which remains at the tourist after consumption of the product, the set of factors, even such as behavior of the maid, the waiter, the representative of the meeting party influences. Brightness, originality and persuasiveness. Specifics of tourist services cause need of SE of the evident means providing the most complete idea of object of tourist interest; Intangibility or non-material character. Tourist service can’t be shown, seen, tried or studied before receiving. The buyer is compelled to take the seller the word.
The seller can describe only advantages which will be got by the buyer after providing service, and services can be estimated only after their performance. Creation of an image of a tourist product. As well as in other consumer goods and services, the fashion on tourist trips and excursions constantly changes. Therefore it s necessary to look for those attractive parties of goods which would give to the offer novelty and uniqueness when studying requirements of target audience that favorably would distinguish it from proposals of competitors and would draw attention of potential consumers.
Slogan. Short but the capacious phrase which is drawing attention and being a certain motto of firm or the main idea, characterizing this or that service. Advertising informs on the company and its product, convinces potential buyers to stop the choice on this company and its product, strengthens confidence at existing clients in the choice. In tourist business from advertising performance of the following important functions is required: With its help any component of service has to have a tangible appearance that it was clear to the potential consumer what exactly is offered to it.
She has to promise benefit or a solution. It has to point to differences of a product of the company from a product of her competitors. It has to have positive impact on those employees of the company who have to put into practice the promises, made to clients. 2. In my work I will write about these types of advertising in the tourist sphere: Advertising in press Radio advertising Outdoor advertising TV advertising 2. 1 . TV advertising Television announcements include images, a sound, movement, color and therefore make on advertising audience considerably bigger influence, than announcements in other mass media.
Advertising on television becomes more and more interesting, informative and at the same time difficult and expensive in production, especially if is based on computer graphics. Lack of TV commercial that during its translation the attention of the potential consumer has to be concentrated on the screen, otherwise the advertising appeal wont be apprehended. The television gives the chance of argue-scale advertising of the consumer goods, but it is inefficient for industrial goods.
For achievement of effect in the field of TV advertising, it must be kept in mind the following: the main thing – interesting visualization (the viewer remembers first of all that sees, instead of that hears); visualization has to be accurate and clear; it is necessary to draw attention of the viewer in the first five seconds, differently interest will be gone; it is better to construct TV commercial so that it didn’t force to think, and helped to apprehend its essence at once; it is better to construct a plot not mound a lifeless subject, and round the person using this subject; it isn’t necessary verbosity -?? each word has to work.
The main advantages and shortcomings of television make: impact on feelings combination of the image of a sound, color, movement; mass character, high extent of drawing attention; high cost, congestion advertising, smaller selectivity of audience. 2. 3. Advertising in the press Advertising in newspapers and magazines was widely adopted and on the volume of expenses concedes only to advertising on television.
Advertising in newspapers is cheaper than the television. At the same time quality of reproduction of advertising originals in newspapers the usually low. From here the advertisements placed in them are, as a rule, less attractive, and each edition has at the same time many such announcements in this connection influence of any of them separately decreases.
Special approaches are necessary for advertising in the press to its creation and placement: the heading has to attract the consumer, give it new information, contain the main argument and a description of goods; it isn’t necessary to be afraid of a large number of words since if all of them on business, the long heading works even better, than short; the consumer is quite often inclined to perceive information literally therefore it is better to do without negative turns since at him in memory the negative moments associating with a subject of advertising can remain; it is necessary to use simple, but words positively existing on all, for example, “free of charge”, “novelty”, etc. In illustrations the intrigue drawing attention is very valuable; photos work better, than drawing, especially when they compare a state before emergence, goods use; the simple model with one big illustration of a format of a Journal strip ideal version of the advertisement in the Reese; it is good to use under-picture inscriptions them surely will read; it isn’t necessary to be afraid of long texts since if the consumer is interested in more detailed information, he attracted with heading, will read all text; the text has to be a lung for perception, without boasting, represent the facts, instead of mere allegations; the trust to advertising increases if the photo and the text reflect a picture of real life, an attestation of eyewitnesses, authoritative experts; don’t print the text light letters against a dark background it difficult to read. 2. 4. Outdoor advertising
Posters on boards of outdoor advertising usually take place along highways and in places of a congestion of people and remind consumers of firms or goods which they already know or point to potential buyers to places where they can make the purchases necessary to them or receive the corresponding service. The advertisement in outdoor advertising usually briefly also can’t inform on firm or goods therefore acquaintance of potential consumers to new goods by means of these mass media is insufficiently effective completely. The main type of outdoor advertising is the large-size poster. Also there are electrified light panels. There are boards of the non-standard size and the forms produced by the special order.
The main recommendations about outdoor advertising are consolidated to the following: panel board advertising is based on the advertising idea, which specifics that it grabs instantly and remembered; visualization has to be simple and bright, an illustration one and no more than seven words; to use fonts simple and clear, such that the announcement could be read from distance of 30-50 meters; it is necessary to make color scale so that it didn’t strain sight and was habitual for an eye; on a billboard it is necessary to specify equities of the next trade and service points where it is possible to acquire advertised goods or service; for the best perception it is possible to enter TV commercial elements into outdoor advertising; it is necessary to check how advertising in various weather is perceived, whether it is covered with buildings. As a result, feature of the press – efficiency, mass character, flexibility, wide recognition, high reliability; but the short duration of existence, sometimes poor quality of printing execution, small audience of “secondary” readers can do much harm to advertising. 3. Characteristics of modern advertising process 3. 1 .
Advertising strategy Advertising strategy consists of two main elements – creations of advertising appeals and a choice of advertising means. In the past the majority of the companies was developed by plans for addresses and advertising means separately. Often the choice of means seemed secondary in relation to process of creation of the address. At first in creative department created acceptable advertising appeals. Then in department of advertising means choose the best means for transfer of these addresses of target audience. Often it led to friction between creative specialists and employees of department of advertising media. Advertising strategy – the large-scale long-term program directed on the solution of the major advertising purpose.
However today fragmentation of mass media, prompt increase of cost of advertising and narrowing of an orientation of marketing strategy increase importance of planning of means of distribution. In one cases the advertising campaign begins with creation of the successful address and the subsequent choice of an advertising medium. In other cases campaign begins in an opportunity in advertising media, then development of the advertising messages, urged to use such advantages follows. More and more the companies feel advantage of Joint planning of these two important elements. Strategy of advertising appeals: The first step at creation of effective advertising messages is the decision on what general address needs to be transferred to consumers, planning of strategy or the main idea of an advertising appeal.
As a rule, the purpose of advertising consists in forcing consumers to think of goods or to react to it definitely. People react, only having believed that they from it will win. Therefore development of effective strategy of the address begins with determination of the advantages got by consumers which an be used in advertising appeals. Statements on which address strategy is based, have to be simple and available, underline advantages and distinctive features of positioning of goods in the market on which the advertiser would like to place emphasis. It means that the advertiser has to develop the creative concept riveting attention – or big idea, – realizing strategy of the address so that it was remembered.
The creative concept can appear image, the phrase or a combination of that and another. Founders of advertising concepts differently look for ideas for advertising appeals which would draw attention of the audience. One advertisement makers begin with conversations with consumers, distributors, experts and competitors. Others try to put themselves to the place of the clients buying or consuming a product, and then look for those benefits for which receiving the consumer seeks upon purchase and when using goods. Usually the author of texts and the graphic designer work together, thinking out many creative concepts and hoping that one of these concepts will turn into big idea.
Therefore, it is necessary to create as much as possible alternative ideas, then to estimate appeal of each of them and to give preference of he best. The creative concept will define a choice of the concrete addresses used in an advertising campaign. Advertising appeals have to possess three properties. First, they have to be significant and point to the advantages doing goods more attractive or interesting to consumers. Secondly, addresses have to be plausible – consumers have to believe that goods or service will provide promised advantages. To reach it quite difficult as the majority of consumers call into question truthfulness of advertising as a whole. As a result of one research it was found out that a third of the population considers advertising doubtful.
However it can appear that the most pronounced and plausible advantages – not the best options for use. Addresses have to be characteristic – to tell, than the goods are better than similar rival goods. At creation of an advertising appeal it is necessary to test previously it by criteria of the importance, plausibility and typicality’s. 3. 2 Main development stages of an advertising campaign. The advertising campaign includes a complex of the advertising and other actions united by common goals and tasks, coordinated on the carrying out time, calculated n target group. The purpose of an advertising campaign (including prestige advertising) is ensuring advance of a product in the market of services and receiving stable profit.
The serious advertising message -?? is a product of a number of researches: studying of a product of firm; studying of consumers and estimated sales market; advertising planning: definition of the purposes and tasks, allocation of money on an advertising campaign; definition of the estimate of expenses, choice of a form of advertising, definition of the most effective editions, programs, transfers, and also publication terms; drawing up texts, scenario of advertising messages; production of the most advertising message: drawing up dummies, shooting or record of rollers. Certainly, any certain formula of success isn’t present, life changes every day therefore tactics of work, especially creative, it is necessary to change, differently not to stand in competitive fight. But, nevertheless, there are general rules on which any work in the advertising sphere is based.
If the advertising campaign is carried out by the attracted specialized firm, it is necessary to pay attention to the next moments unconnected with its activity: existence of the license for the right of this kind of activity; experience of this firm in the field of advertising; existence at firm of production and printing base; presence of experts in protection and patenting of the trademark of firm. At the conclusion of the contract for carrying out an advertising campaign it is necessary to raise a question of the right and protection of intellectual property. Definition is more whole: to whom the advertising message is addressed; scoping of expected profit. Research of the tourist market which generally is based on results of market searches. Thus there is a studying of target audience; tourist’s product analysis; tourist’s market analysis.
It is necessary to carry out the analysis of previous advertising work which is starting point not only the market analysis, but also all complex of planning of the next advertising campaign. He allows to define extent of impact of advertising on the consumer, to reveal its weak and strengths further to avoid repetition of possible mistakes and to fix positive experience. All parameters of advertising work are exposed to the analysis: its terms, volumes, types, contents, means of carrying out. Also advertising campaigns of competitors, their concrete results are analyzed. Studying of consumers help to reveal groups and categories of potential consumers on which it is necessary to direct advertising taking into account their demographic, social, economic characteristics.
These researches are conducted usually on the basis of selective (representative) questionnaires or interviewing. Researches of consumers of services help not only to establish motivation of demand, its compliance to consumer properties of the offer, but also to strengthen action of these or those incentive motives. Finally studying of consumers of services has to give accurate reference points -?? advertising will be directed on what specific buyer. Research of goods allows to isolate the most attractive advantages of a product, unique properties of services on which advertising has to concentrate attention of buyers. At all development stages and product improvement consumer estimates have a strategic importance.
It must be kept in mind that the fashion on consumer goods and services constantly changes. Therefore when studying consumer properties of a product it is necessary to look for those its attractive parties which loud give to the offer novelty and uniqueness that favorably would distinguish it from proposals of competitors. The analysis of the market shows where there are potential consumers, “that advertising could accept the most perspective and accurate directions”. It has to help to resolve an issue of distribution of advertising efforts on various markets and market segments, realization volume in the concrete market of a concrete product is defined.
Usually for these purposes reporting data on sales of services in previous years and their correlation on prospect in a section both territorial, and the specific markets are used. The firm always focuses a product on a certain segment of the market therefore also the advertising appeal has to draw attention of this segment first of all. 2. The analysis television and radio advertising of tourist services in Chalkiness. 1. 1 Advertising -?? information distributed in any way, in any form and with use of any means, addressed to an uncertain circle of people and directed on drawing attention to object of advertising, formation or maintenance of interest to it and its advance in the market.
The advertising purpose -?? information report from the advertiser to target audience. Problem of advertising -?? to induce representatives of target audience to action (to a goods or service choice, purchase implementation, etc. , and also to formation of the conclusions planned by the advertiser about object of advertising). The federal law “About advertising” defines as the advertising purpose, first, formation or maintenance of interest of advertising audience to natural (legal) persons, goods, ideas and undertakings and, secondly, contribution of their realization. More often than others advertising after all pursues the aims of economic character. 1. Feature of advertising in the tourism sphere ore important as people, getting a tourist package, can’t be up to the end sure of quality of provided services, only upon termination of rest will be able to express the opinion. In this area advertising is urged to create a favorable image in consciousness of potential consumers. The purpose of an advertising campaign (including prestige advertising) is ensuring advance of a product in the market of services and receiving stable profit. 1. 3 Advertising agency. The advertising agency represents the independent organization of the creative and business people specializing on development, preparation and advance, advertising ND other advertising materials by means of communication channels. advertising agencies share on two big groups: creative agencies (create advertising), media agencies (place advertising). In the market also there is a huge number of the agencies offering to clients more specialized services: interactive marketing communication design, branding, and so forth. The agency also gets or involves subcontractors for space and time purchase in various mass media. All this becomes on behalf of various advertisers or sellers whom call clients, with the purpose to find buyers for their goods and services. Agencies work for a number of sellers to find buyers on their goods and services. They work for the clients, instead of on mass media and/or service providers.
Their moral, ethical, financial, and sometimes and legal obligations to the client – to find him the most favorable prices, to ensure them the most high-quality functioning and to promote. Structure of the advertising market of Russia on types of advertising media: 1) place 2) print media 3) outdoor advertising 4) radio 5) Internet and other carriers 2. Radio advertising To advantages of advertising on radio traditionally refer personal character, efficiency, profitability (tariffs for it are rather low). Radio advertising as any another, – is ubiquitous. Advantage of radio before other mass media: this 24-hour broadcasting to many regions and variety of programs.
To radio listen in inhabited and production rooms, in kitchen, walking in the open air, in the car. Therefore the advertisements placed in the corresponding radio programs, cover considerable percent of the set audience of consumers, irrespective of where they are -?? at work, on vacation, in a way. The radio advertising is operational and has low cost. At the same time in the course f perception of the advertising appeals broadcast by radio, sight through which the person receives to 90% of information doesn’t participate. Besides, the radio advertising complicates establishment of bilateral communications with the consumer. Often it has near at hand no handle, a pencil, paper to write down the data transferred in the announcement.