A way of promoting products, services or information A form of A physical communication (between manufacturer and consumer) commodity An integral part of pop culture An important economic force A part of our urban landscape The analysis of advertising is an integral part of Media Studies. Advertising manifests itself in all known media forms, and is constantly seeking new media, new channels of communication.
Through looking at advertising we can learn not only how the most simple narratives are constructed (a print ad is simpler than a magazine article, a NC is simpler than a feature film, although they use the same narrative techniques), but how ideas can be communicated at great speed, through the use of single images and words. WHAT IS ADVERTISING? The word advertising originates from Latin word advertise, which means to urn to. The dictionary meaning of the term is “to give public notice or to give publicity’. Advertising may be defined as the process of buying sponsor- identified media space or time in order to promote a product or an idea.
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It is perhaps the most visible of all the elements in the promotion mix and is therefore subject to much criticism from consumer groups. It is also subjected to government regulation. The American Marketing Association, Chicago, has defined advertising as “any paid form of non-personal presentation or promotion of ideas, goods or services, by an identified sponsor”. Advertising is not just 30 seconds of entertainment during the Super Bowl or the announcement of the new deals from the cheesy car dealer down the street. Advertising is big business??an industry with extraordinary cultural and economic impact.
It has the power to create brand awareness and loyalty and to stimulate demand. In its most profound form, it can turn mere products into meaningful brands and important possessions and turn the most mundane object into a cultural icon. Advertising can be offensive or memorable, the center of controversy or the topic of conversation. In its simplest form, advertising is a method of one- ay communication beјen an advertiser and the consumer. An advertisement is persuasive in nature and sends an intended message through a designated medium (radio, television, the Internet).
However, in receiving a message, consumers do not always interpret the message as the advertiser intended. Successful advertising sales results in satisfied customers and revenue growth for the company. Definition i. Advertising is a paid form and hence is commercial in nature. Publicity is not paid for by the sponsor. Advertising is a paid form of publicity. Thus any sponsored communication designed to influence buyer behavior is advertising. Ii. Advertising is non-personal. Whatever the form of advertisement (visual, spoken or written), it is directed at a mass audience and not directly at the individual as in personal selling. Ii. Advertisements are identified with their sponsoring authority, which is not always the case with publicity. ORIGIN AND GROWTH OF ADVERTISING The history of advertising dates back to the early days of human civilization. The evolution or growth of advertising can be briefly stated as follows: 1 . Early Forms of Advertising: Three forms of advertising existed during the pre-printing period, i. E. Before 1 5th century. The three forms are as follows: a) Trade Marks: In olden days, artisans used to inscribe on their goods such as pots, wooden tools, etc. , certain marks such a stars, moon, tiger, etc.
Such marks came to be regarded as trade marks. The trademark was treated as a form of advertising because the reputation of a particular trademark spread by word of mouth. The buyer used to look for such marks before buying the product or tools at the village fairs or such other places. B) Town Criers: prior to 1 5th century, shopkeepers and other sellers appointed town criers to popularize their stores and products. The town crier ore colony cloths and played a musical instrument such as drum or a flute and attracted the attention Of the people at the village fairs, bazaars etc. He town crier used to offer samples and praise the shop and the product soled by the shops. Town crier were treated as a form of advertising as they attracted the attention of the people and also induced or persuaded the people to buy the products popularized by them. C) Sign Boards: Signs or signboards have been in use for over 5000 years. In those days, sellers used to paint signs on the rocks or boards about their goods. People were attracted by those Signs and purchased the product popularized by the signs or signboards. For e. G. , a sign of cow was used for dairy products, row Of ham for butches shop etc. . Birth of Printing Press: In 1438, Johan Gutenberg invented the crude form of printing press. This made possible the printed advertisements in the following forms: a) Hand Mills: In 1477, William Cotton from London brought out the first ever-printed advertisement in the form of a hand mill. The advertisement was for a religious book. B) Newspaper Advertisement: The Gutenberg invention made possible the printing of a newspaper. The first newspaper came into existence in Germany around 1520, and the first newspaper ad was published in about 1525 in Germany for a book.
The first printed English newspaper appeared in 1622 called “The Weekly News of London”, and the first ad in an English newspaper appeared in 1 625 for a book. C) Magazine Advertising: Magazines were first published in the early sass, how ever, advertising in magazines gain reorganization only around 1870. In those days, most of the advertisements were in the form of posters/ handbills and in newspapers. 3. Birth of Advertising Agency: In 1840 Volley Palmer started the first advertising agency in America at Philadelphia. In those days, ad agencies used to act as “salesmen of space”.
They used to sell space in newspapers and magazines on behalf of publishers to the advertisers. They used to get 25% commission for such services. The real advertising work such as copyrighting art-work etc, by the ad agencies began in the early 20th century. 4. Radio Advertising: Marion invented the radio. The radio was introduced to the public in the early sass. The first radio advertisement was aired in 1922 for “Eveready Batteries” in America. Because of the invention of radio, it was made possible to advertise to the illiterates.
The music and sound effects of radio advertising gave a new meaning to the field of 5. Television advertising: in sass John L. Bird invented the commercially viable television. It was the most impressive medium Of all times. The television advertising combined the effect of voice and vision, music and motion. The first commercial appeared in 1 949 in USA. In India, the first TV commercial appeared on Jan. 1 , 1976. 6. Other Forms: In this present century several other forms of advertising came into existence. It includes neon-signs, video, sky writing, billboards, yellow pages, direct mail, etc. 7.
Growth of Advertising Organizations: Several advertising organizations came into existence during the 20th century. These include Audit Bureau of Circulation (BBC) in 1914 in America and later on in other countries including India; Advertising Agencies Association of America in 1945. These organization gave an added impetus to the progress of advertising throughout the world. 8. Internet: An interesting form Of advertising in the late sass is the Internet. Internet can be called as electronic yellow pages. Companies open a website wherein they provide information about the company and the product.