TIMELINE OF CIVIL RIGHTS AND NEW LEFT MOVEMENTS OF THE 1960’s SS310-07Exploring the 1960s: An Interdisciplinary Approach November 30, 2009 | | | |1960 |[pic] |On February 1, 1960 four black students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College in Greensboro, NC sat in | | | |at a whites-only lunch counter in a Woolworth’s department store, asking to be served and refusing to give up their | | | |seats until they were. Sit-in Campaign)(Gosse, 2005) | | |[pic] |April 17, 1960 Inspired by the Greensboro sit-in by four black college students at an all-white lunch counter, nearly | | | |150 black students from nine states formed the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).
Meeting in Raleigh, | | | |North Carolina, with Ella Baker, James Lawson and Martin Luther King, Jr. , the founders set SNCC’s initial goals as | | | |overturning segregation in the South and giving young blacks a stronger voice in the civil rights movement. Gosse, | | | |2005) | |1961 | |In May 1961, the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), an interracial pacifist group formed in 1942, organized Freedom | | | |Rides by teams of black and white activist who rode buses into the South to test the enforcement of desegregation | | | |statutes. Gosse, 2005) | | |[pic] |On November 1st, a nationwide coalition called Women Strike for Peace organized a worldwide protest against the U. S. | | | |and Soviet arms race, and the dangers of nuclear fallout on children and the environment. Estimates range from 12,000 | | | |to 50,000 participants worldwide.
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Protests continued throughout the decade at the White House, Pentagon, and the United| | | |Nations headquarters in New York City. (Gosse, 2005) | | | |Established on December 14 by President John F. Kennedy, the Commission on the Status of Women consisted of 20 members | | | |(led by former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt) to examine how current employment policies affected women.
Their report | | | |documented widespread discrimination in wages, opportunities for advancement, and federal tax laws. Recommendations | | | |made regarding hiring practices, affordable child care, and paid maternity leave played a large role in promoting | | | |future policies. |1962 |[pic] |Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) held its founding convention in Michigan and issued The Port Huron Statement, | | | |laying out its principles and program. | | | | | | | |”Making values explicit–an initial task in establishing alternatives–is an activity that has been devalued and | | | |corrupted.
The conventional moral terms of the age, the politician moralities–“free world,” “people’s | | | |democracies”–reflect realities poorly, if at all, and seem to function more as ruling myths than as descriptive | | | |principles. | | |[pic] |James Meredith becomes the first black student to enroll at the University of Mississippi.
Violence and riots | | | |surrounding the incident cause President Kennedy to send hundreds of U. S. Marshalls to guarantee his safety who were | | | |pinned down overnight by several thousands armed whites. It took over 5,000 federal troops from a nearby Air Force | | | |base to end the violence. Gosse, 2005) | |1963 |[pic] |In 1963, Friedan published The Feminine Mystique, an instant bestseller demanding solutions to “the problem that has no| | | |name”: women’s oppression, what radicals later labeled patriarchy.
Focusing on the frustrations of women who were | | | |limited to roles as housewives, Friedman articulated a new brand of rights-oriented feminism just as the civil rights | | | |movement peaked. (Gosse, 2005) | | |[pic] |Signed by President Kennedy, the Equal Pay Act prohibited the practice of paying women less money than men for the same| | | |job.
Though “equal pay for equal work” is still an issue, the Equal Pay Act amended the Fair Labor Standards Act of | | | |1938 by addressing wage discrimination on the basis of sex and was an important step toward economic equality. (Gosse, | | | |2005) | | |[pic] |August 28, 1963, a quarter of a million people gathered in Washington, D.
C. , for the March for Jobs and Freedom, the | | | |largest demonstration in U. S. History. The March was sponsored by six major civil rights organizations. At the | | | |Lincoln Memorial, Martin Luther King, Jr. , delivered his famous, “I Have a Dream”, speech. (Gosse, 2005) | | |[pic] |The assassination of John F.
Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, | | | |November??22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, at 12:30 p. m. Central Standard Time (18:30 UTC) in Dealey Plaza. Kennedy was | | | |fatally shot while riding with his wife Jacqueline in a Presidential motorcade | |1964 |[pic] |Summer 1964 the focus shifted to voting rights.
Earlier that summer, SNCC built on years of community organizing in | | | |Mississippi to launch the Freedom Summer Project in alliance with CORE, SCLC, and the NAACP. Freedom Summer Project | | | |goal was to register African Americans voters in the new Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP), using the | | | |presence of white northerners to focus a national spotlight on the nations most racist state. Gosse, 2005) | | |[pic] |On July 1, 1964, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act, which received bipartisan support and banned discrimination | | | |based on race, ethnicity, and national origin in all public accommodations and employment. Gosse, 2005) | | |[pic] |In early 1964, Malcolm-X left the Nation of Islam and founded a new group, the Organization of Afro-American Unity, to | | | |press for black political and economic power. He visited Africa and the Middle East and declared that he no longer | | | |viewed all whites as enemies. Gosse, 2005) | | |[pic] |The Free Speech Movement (FSM) was a student protest which took place during the 1964???1965 academic year on the campus | | | |of the University of California, Berkeley under the informal leadership of students Mario Savio, Brian Turner, Bettina | | | |Apthecker, Steve Weissman, Art Goldberg, Jackie Goldberg, and others.
In protests unprecedented at the time, students | | | |insisted that the university administration lift a ban on on-campus political activities and acknowledge the students’ | | | |right to free speech and academic freedom. | |1965 |[pic] |Malcolm-X a black nationalist and founder of the Organization of Afro-American Unity, was shot and killed in a public | | | |auditorium in New York City.
It is believed the assailants are members of the Black Muslim faith, which Malcolm had | | | |recently abandoned in favor of orthodox Islam, but this is a matter of controversy. | | |[pic] |525 civil rights advocates began a 54-mile March on a Sunday morning from Selma, Alabama, | | | |to the capital of Montgomery, to promote voting rights for blacks.
Just after crossing the | | | |Edmund Pettus Bridge on the outskirts of Selma, the marchers were attacked in what became | | | |known as Bloody Sunday. Enforcing an order by Gov.
George Wallace, the group was broken | | | |up by state troopers and volunteer officers of the Dallas County sheriff who used tear gas, | | | |night sticks, bullwhips and rubber tubing wrapped in barbed wire.
John Lewis, then head of the | | | |Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and a leader of the march (and now a member of Congress from Georgia), | | | |suffered a fractured skull. | | | | | | |[pic] |The first Teach-In on the Vietnam War was held at the University of Michigan a month after Pres.
Lyndon Johnson ordered| | | |bombing of North Vietnam. The U-M teach-in was among the first of a new form of campus protest that was to spread | | | |nationwide, a means of mobilizing students to examine policies of their government that they previously had taken for | | | |granted. | | |[pic] |Congress passes the Voting Rights Act of 1965, making it easier for Southern blacks to register to vote.
Literacy | | | |tests, poll taxes, and other such requirements that were used to restrict black voting are made illegal. (Gosse, 2005) | |1966 |[pic] |The Black Panthers was the best known black radical group, founded by two men named, Bobby Seale and Huey Newton. The | | | |group promoted civil rights and equality. Unlike MLK, most of the organizations tactics were violent.
The group had 10 | | | |points, they included equality in the workforce, equal housing opportunity, and black power. The Black Panthers made | | | |the phrase “Power to the people! ” widespread and famous. | | |[pic] |Founded by Betty Friedan, National Organization For Women (NOW) challenged sex discrimination in the workplace through | | | |public demonstrations, lobbying, and litigation.
By the end of the decade, membership grew to over 3,000. In the 1970s,| | | |NOW’s agenda grew to include maternity leave, the Equal Rights Amendment, and pro-choice legislation. (Gosse, 2005) | |1967 | | | | |[pic] |On April 4, 1968, Dr.
Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated while standing on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in | | | |Memphis, Tennessee where he was staying; he was suppose to lead a peaceful protest march with striking garbage workers | | | |of the city. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |1968 | | | | |[pic] |On April 11, 1968, President Lyndon Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1968, which was meant as a follow-up to the | | | |Civil Rights Act of 1964. The 1968 act expanded on previous acts and prohibited discrimination concerning the sale, | | | |rental, and financing of housing based on race, religion, national origin, sex, (and as amended) handicap and family | | | |status. Title VIII of the Act is also known as the Fair Housing Act (of 1968). (Gosse, 2005) | | |[pic] |March 11, 1968, Cesar Chavez ended a 23-day fast for U. S. arm workers in a Delano, California, public park with 4000 | | | |supporters at his side, including Sen. Robert Kennedy (D-New York). Cesar Chavez led the effort to organize farm | | | |workers into a union for better pay, working and living conditions. | | |[pic] |In May of 1968, the American Indian Movement was made to advance the rights of natives and to reembrace their culture. | | | |They succeeded in showing the public their plight. They conducted demonstrations such as the Alcatraz occupation and | | | |the Wounded Knee Seige. | |[pic] |Although largely overshadowed by his famous brother’s assassination, Robert F. Kennedy also met a violent fate with a | | | |bullet to the brain. RFK’s presidential aspirations came to a crashing halt at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles on | | | |June 5, 1968. (Gosse, 2005) | | |[pic] |Shirley Chisholm (1924-2005) ran for office in 1968 and became the first African American woman elected to Congress. | | |She hired an all-female staff and fought for civil rights and women’s rights; she was cofounder of the National | | | |Organization for Women (NOW). A vocal critic of the Vietnam War, Chisholm was a champion of the poor and fought for | | | |increased funding for education. | |1969 |[pic] |The Gay Liberation Front was formed in New York City in the summer of 1969, shortly after the Stonewall Riots. Gays and| | | |lesbians in New York City radicalized in an unprecedented way, founding several activist groups that created a new | | | |vision for Gay Liberation.
The exhibition 1969: The Year of Gay Liberation charts the emergence and evolution of this | | | |new vision from the Stonewall Riots to the first LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender) Pride march on | | | |Christopher Street in June 1970 (Gosse, 2005) | | |[pic] |More than 250,000 protesters gather in Washington, D. C. , in the largest antiwar demonstration to occur during the | | | |Vietnam war. ; Native American activist occupy the former federal prison Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay. (Gosse, | | | |2005) | WORKS CITED Gosse, Van. The Movement of the New Left 1950-1975: A Brief History with Documents. Copyright ?? 2005 by Bedford/St. Martin’s Google Images. Civil Rights Movement, 2009 Copyright. Images, Retrieved November 28, 2009 http://images. google. com/ ———————– Chronological Key of Events
Selma Civil Rights Marches March 1965 Assassination of John F. Kennedy November 22, 1963 Sit-in Campaign February 1, 1960 Civil Rights Act of 1964 July 1, 1964 The Feminine Mystique published by Betty Friedan May 7, 1963 The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) is founded. April 16-17, 1960 Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. April 4, 1968 Free Speech Movement October 1964 Freedom Rides May 7, 1961 Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy June 5, 1968 16th Street Baptist Church Bombing September 14, 1963 Voting Rights Act of 1965 May 7, 1965 President’s Commission on the Status of Women December 14, 1961 Freedom Summer Project June 1, 1964
Black Panthers were formed May 7, 1966 American Indian Movement May 7, 1968 SDS Produced Port Huron June 11, 1962 Civil Rights Act of 1968 April 11, 1968 Malcolm-X Assassinated February 20, 1965 Mother’s Protest Against War November 1961 Shirley Chisholm is the first black woman elected to congress June 5, 1968 Equal Pay Act June 10, 1963 1965 Teach-in Movement March 23, 1965 James Meredith October 20, 1962 National Organization for Women (Now) August 26, 1966 March on Washington for civil rights August 28, 1963 Gay Liberation Front July 1969 Largest Anit-war Rally November 1969 Malcolm-X leaves the Nation of Islam June 1, 1964 U. S. Farm Workers