The assemblies held the power of the purse and generally got their way. Navigation Acts – acts passed by British parliament to regulate colonial trade so that raw materials were produced for the mother country and manufactured goods were purchased from her. Raw materials could only go to England, purchase finished goods from England; all colonial trade must be conducted on English shipping (page 9) Purpose of the acts was to promote the economic welfare of the empire in general and of the mother country in pa reticular.
Salutary Neglect – Gob of KGB could not govern half the globe, when not focused on extending the empire elsewhere, thought local issues in England o be of greater importance then enforcement of the Navigation Acts (plop) Sugar Act – to raise money, Parliament’s exclusive power to tax was the most important feature of its supremacy over the King, the most important guarantee of English liberty.
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Stamp Act – 1765 – almost anything formally written or printed would have to be on special stamped paper which would be shipped from the central stamp office in London and dispensed in America by local agents on payment of specified taxes. Pay stamp fees at every stage of a lawsuit, diplomas, deeds, almanacs and advertisements, bills and bonds, custom papers and swappers, even dice and cards Colonists did not wait for the stamp tax to take affect – mob stoned and pillaged the house of Andrew Oliver, a designated tax collector. Also attacked the houses of Governor Hutchinson, customs collectors and members of the admiralty courts Sons of Liberty groups began to form throughout colonies Though colonists could not agree on boundary lines and Indian wars, they could agree without argument on opposition to taxes Taxation without Representation – There was a distinction between taxation and legislation, and the right to legislate did not necessarily include the right o tax. Taxes were a gift, given by the people through their representatives, and consequently only a representative body could grant them. 766 – Parliament repealed the Stamp Act – due more so to power struggle within Parliament not to pressure from colonists. Declaratory Act – Parliaments response to colonial questioning – affirmed Parliaments right to make laws and statutes binding the colonists in all cases whatsoever Did the power to legislate include the power to tax? The English believed so Quartering Act – forced colonists to feed and house to soldiers stationed within their respective boundaries
Townsend Acts -?? If the colonists distinguished between internal and external taxes let them pay taxes on the items imported: glass, lead, paper, paints and TEA. Colonial merchants agreed not to import goods from Britain until the duties were repealed – “England’s most fateful decision” b/c most of the events that goaded Americans into independence may be attributed to it. Violation of these acts, and earlier ones, were punished by seizure of the offending vessel and cargo.
Both would be sold and the proceeds divided: 1/3 to England, 1/3 to the governor of the colony, 1/3 to the customs official – Boston quickly developed an open hatred for the racketeers whom Parliament had sent among them – Customs official sent for troops to protect them and England responded. By 1768, two regiments were on their way to the colonies Colonists insisted there was a distinction between legislation and taxation. THE more they insisted the more determined members of Parliament became to teach them that they could not set limits on Parliament’s authority.
Swept. 13, 1 768 – with troops about to arrive, the people of Boston gathered in Town Meeting and declared that the keeping of a standing army amongst hem “without their consent In person or by Representatives of their own free election, would be an infringement of their natural, constitutional and Charter Rights; and the employing such Army for the enforcing Of Laws made without the consent of the people, in Person, or by their representatives would be a grievance. (pop) The Bostonians, by restraining their anger and offering no open affront to the troops, were able to win universal sympathy and to make the whole policy of employing troops against them seem as ridiculous as it was odious. In fact, such a calm prevailed that no real use could be found for the troops at all. March 5, 1770 – Boston Massacre – A crowd gathered, “a motley rabble of saucy boys, Negroes and mulattoes, Irish teases and outlandish jack tars” as John Adams called them during the soldiers’ trial.
Soldiers received a heavy bombardment of snowballs and rubbish when they opened fire. 3 dead, 8 wounded , including Crisps Attacks. The story spread rapidly throughout colonies. Americans by now had realized that Boson’s cause was their cause. They all had property which parliament claimed the right to take away. They all had rep. Assemblies that royal governors might dissolve. 770-1773 – The Townsend Acts did not bring in much revenue. The only problem was how to repeal them without looking weak. Thus, Parliament repealed all but the Tea Act.
Colonial merchants ended their non-importation and three years of commercial prosperity ensued. They still paid the tax on tea and molasses. Edmund Burke -?? “Assertions of right are a sure symptom of a ill-conducted state. ” A series of incidents beginning in early 1772 led to irreconcilable bitterness and prompted the Americans to a momentous new view of their relation to England. 1772 – Gasped -?? British warship exacting tolls from trading vessels in Narragansett Bay. The ship ran aground and was attacked and pillaged by Rhode Island colonists.
A commission was created to investigate, to no end. But, their existence excited the colonists. Governor Hutchinson and Superior Court justices began to receive pay directly from the king instead of colonists. Purpose was to free royal officials from the dependence on the assemblies. Novo. 2, 1772 – the first meeting of the Committee of Correspondence in Boston led by Samuel Adams. Purpose was to prepare a statement of colonial rights, list violations, communicate these to other towns, and invite animal statements from similar committees in return. The colonists have been branded with the odious names of traitors and rebels, only for complaining of their grievances;” The declaration spread and became repeated throughout the colonies. Ben Franklin sent back from London a set of letters from the Boston governors proving that they got just what they were requesting. The Committees spread and awaited England’s next movement (bringing colonists together against the home government. ) Easing the troubling East India Company – mammoth corporation that represented England’s interests in India -?? Lord North decided to help it sell a rage amount of tea in America.
The company was permitted to sell directly to America through its own agents. The lower price would enable the East India Company to out sell the smuggled tea and thus collect all of the profits, of which the colonists would get no share. Colonial merchants cried “monopoly. ” Most tea ships left the ports when met with colonial protests. But, in Boston there was a showdown. Gob. Hutchinson would not allow the ships to depart. DCE. 16, 1773, The Boston Tea Party unloaded the tea themselves into the harbor. Coercive (Intolerable) Acts – March-April 1 774 – An angry Parliament enacted acts to bring the Bostonians to their knees.
Closed the port to all commerce Gave king power to appoint the governors council Forbade town meetings Quartering of troops in Boston To enforce acts, General Gage was commissioned as governor of Mass. Instead of taking this as Boston being wicked for its insurrection, the other colonies saw it as Boston being martyred because it stood foremost in defense of colonial rights. They took up collections and showered the people of Boston with provisions. Parliament took this moment to establish a government in Quebec, Canada with no representative body (Quebec Act).