Kristin specifically builds his ethos by interviewing public officials, such as Agenda’s president, and authorities on the subject, such as the Intergovernmental panel on Climate Change. Kristin states that the panel “foresees water shortages and crop failures in much of Africa,” even to the point that ‘”crop net revenues could fall as much as 90 percent (Kristin 579-580). Once he brings the economy into the picture, it sakes his point more attractive to an American audience. He also shows his enthusiasm and eagerness to help bring awareness to the worsening situation evolving in Bujumbura, Burundi.
Kristin shows off how compassionate he is through his win-a-trip journey in which he takes one student and one teacher who are winners of an essay contest on a reporting trip. Telling readers about his win-a-trip journey allows him to portray himself as dedicated to helping spread the word about how his audience can help people in third world countries. Ultimately, Kristin uses his compassion and interest for countries like these to draw in the reader; therefore, making his essay and arguments more respectable and worth reading. His knowledge about countries like Burundi only adds to his credibility, which makes his essay more persuasive.
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One way Brown builds ethos in his article is by stating, “many years I have studied global agricultural, population, environmental and economic trends and their interactions” (Brown). This shows readers that he is knowledgeable and has had experience with the issues he is informing the reader about. Brown also uses a confident tone hen talking about facts and his thoughts on the effects Of global warming. Having a confident tone is an attention grabber to readers and is something both authors do to grab the audience’s attention. On top of using effective ethos, Kristin and Brown also builds a valid argument using pathos.
Pathos is also a similar rhetorical term Brown and Kristin use as a strategy to draw in the readers. Kristin begins his essay with, “If we need any more proof that life is unfair, it is that subsistence villagers here in Africa will pay with their lives for our refusal to curb greenhouse gas emissions” (Kristin 79). This quote sets the tone for emotional appeal Kristin effectively uses to draw in his readers. Christofis use of pathos is most effective because he paints a clear picture of what life is like as a villager in Bujumbura, Burundi.
Burundi is reported to be the poorest country in the world, with an average income of only one hundred dollars. With life expectancy rates only at forty five years old and one in five children dying before they even reach the age of five, our greenhouse gas emissions and gas usage is not making anything better but actually helping cause deaths, as well as food and water shortage which are leading to more starvation and poverty. Kristin also gives three huge examples that play a major role in the survival in the people of Burundi. He discusses the importance of the harvest and crops.
Without food, the villagers starve to death. With the rising temperatures, it causes malaria and diseases to spread rapidly. On top of these two major issues, without food and water wars could be started. It emphasizes the important role citizens of wealthy western countries play in lives of the villagers in countries like Burundi. Brown uses pathos as a strategy in his article when he says, “As demand for food rises faster than supplies are growing, the resulting food-price inflation puts severe stress on the governments of countries already teetering on the edge of chaos.
Unable to buy grain or grow their own, hungry people take to the streets” (Brown 50-57). Using facts like these triggers the readers to feel bad for the people of poor countries who are already struggling on a day-to-day basis. His use of pathos pulls one in to the global warming catastrophe, makes it real, and makes one feel responsible. Brown also goes on to talk about South Africa and Haiti and the negative affects that global warming has had on their crops. He refers to the slogan “Less Sail, More Hunger’ to grab the readers attention.
Not only do Kristin and Brown’s articles trigger emotional responses as they explains the harsh reality some countries may have to face in the future, they also develop logos by using logical reasoning to explain what the consequences could be to these countries in a few years if we do not start taking the issue seriously now. Logos is one of the stronger parts of both Kristin and Brown’s essays. Due to the vulnerability of Burundi, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has “projected reductions in yield to some countries could be as much as 50 percent by 2020, and crop net revenue could fall as much as 90 percent” (Kristin 580).
Using logic and examples increases the effectiveness of Christofis essay because it gives real reasoning to the serious effects green house gas emissions are having on small third world countries. Its prime focus is to grab the readers attention and warn them that our environmental irresponsibility can and will lead to thousands of innocent people dying. Brown states, ‘The biggest threat to global stability is the potential for food crises in poor countries to cause government collapse.
Those crises are brought on by ever worsening environmental degradation” (Brown 50-57) After Brown’s statement he goes on to list fact after fact about how global warming is going to lead to instability in many countries. Kristin and Brown’s argument is overall effective in the fact that it allows readers to become aware that what we do in first world countries effects people in places less fortunate. Kristin and Brown seek to warn the readers of he damaging effects pollution and greenhouse gases are having on certain countries.