Principles of safeguarding and protection in health and social care. Physical abuse This means the abusive action of hitting, kicking, slapping, pushing/pulling, burning, scalding and nipping or force-feeding a client. The use of a restraint and the misuse of medication; anything trying to hurt or injure another person. Leaving a client in wet or soiled clothing and/or bedding.
Sexual abuse Not giving informed consent to any sexual activity, including rape, masturbation, indecent exposure, enforced witnessing of sexual acts to which a vulnerable adult has not consented; or was pressured into consenting. Emotional/ psychological abuse This includes: bullying, threats of harm or abandonment, ignoring, controlling, blaming, intimidation, harassment, coercion, verbal abuse, not giving a client privacy or dignity, isolation or withdrawal from services or support networks.
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Lack of human contact and inter-action. Financial Abuse This can be theft, fraud, financial transactions, pressure in connection with wills, misuse of property, possessions or benefits. Institutional abuse This is the failure of an organization to provide an appropriate and professional service to vulnerable service users; poor care standards, rigid routines, inadequate staffing, lack of positive responses to complex needs and insufficient knowledge base within the service. Excessive or inappropriate doses of sedation/ medication.
Self neglect This is when a person neglects their own care needs; such as lack of personal hygiene, lack of eating, no heating or comfort. Being isolated and absence of prescribed medication. Neglect by others This means it is when either a family member or care worker fails to meet someone’s support needs, as a result of neglect; people can become ill, hungry, cold, dirty, injured or deprived of their rights. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF ABUSE Physical abuse: Unexplained falls or major injuries Injuries and bruises at different stages of healing.
Bruising in UnUSUal areas – inner arms and thighs Injuries to head and/or face Teeth indentations Black eyes Fractures Scratches or cuts Weight loss Scalds or cigarette burns Deterioration of health without obvious cause Mood changes Client passive/very passive Reluctance by the vulnerable person to be left alone with alleged abuser Sexual abuse: Urinary infections Sexually transmitted disease Complaints of stomach pains Unexpected pregnancies Bruising or bleeding on the legs, thighs, arms or genital areas Blood or marks on underwear Change in behavior Overt sexual behavior or language Difficulty in walking/sitting Refusal to undress Emotional/psychological abuse: Career seeming to ignore vulnerable persons needs Reluctance by the vulnerable person to be left alone by alleged abuser Reports from neighbors of shouting, screaming, swearing Vulnerable person being treated like a child Vulnerable person fearful of raised voices Change in appetite/weight Depression Change in sleep patterns Agitation Confusion Change in behavior – more aggressive Financial abuse: Vulnerable person not being allowed to manage their own finances Unpaid bills Basic needs not being met Lack of cash on a day to day basis Objects missing from the home Being overly protective of money Changing of a will Institutional abuse: Inability to make choices or decisions Agitation if routine broken Disorientation Patterns of challenging behavior Malnutrition Staff treating clients like children and not being flexible to needs Self neglect: Not washing or keeping clean Not taking medication Unwilling to socialize with people Unexplained cuts Lack of adequate nutrition Lack of heating Ignoring health issues Neglect by others: Changes in weight either by loss or gain
Pressure sores Denied medical care Hungry and/or thirsty Sallow skin Unwashed clothing Lack of physical cleanliness Dirty environment Iii Correct actions to take if you suspect an individual is being abused If I suspected that an individual was being abused, I would firstly report this immediately to my supervisor/manager in a confidential manner. As in the Care Plan I would use the body map to indicate the appropriate area. I would be very careful as to not ask leading questions, for example, “Has someone hit you? ” I would ask “How has this happened? ” If the client mentioned a person by name, I loud not speak to this person about the alleged abuse. In all instances I would maintain confidentiality and not speak publicly about the matter; and I would follow the correct procedures of the organization I was working for.
Correct actions to take if an individual tells you they are being abused If an individual told me they are being abused, I would stop what I was doing and listen very carefully to them, making eye contact, and not interrupting them. I would treat the conversation as confidential and only pass the information to those who needed to know (my supervisor/manager). I would never promise an individual that I would keep it secret, I would reassure and comfort the individual and explain that I would only be passing on the information to people that can help. I would explain that I have a duty to report it. Would preserve any evidence and treat it as a crime scene. Afterwards I would make notes of the conversation in their words, but I would not leave it in the Care Plan, incase the abuser looked through the notes.
VA Ensure evidence of abuse is kept safe Do not attempt to clean anything, such as, clothes Take photographs, if appropriate Record any visible signs of abuse, like bruises, injuries or torn clothing Do not empty glasses or move anything Client should be dissuaded to wash or even brush hair Other people need to keep out of the way If financial abuse, evidence could be pampered and these should be kept in clean envelopes Only remove evidence if you suspect the abuser might dispose of it before the authorities can see it Aviva Identify the national policies that set out requirements for safeguarding individuals No Secrets (Adult Protection) 2000 – guidance documents that set out how local authorities must work jointly with other agencies to make local arrangements to safeguard and protect vulnerable adults from abuse. Mental Capacity Act (2005):
Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards – it is a criminal offence to ill-treat or neglect a person who lacks capacity. It outlines five key principles to protect adults at risk who are unable to make their own decisions; including financial abuse. Human Rights Act (1998) – all individuals have the right to live free from violence and abuse, these rights include: the right to life, freedom from torture (including humiliating and degrading treatment) and the right to family life. Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act (2006) – oversees the vetting and barring scheme. Care Quality Commission Regulations (2009) – introduced essential standards of laity and safety.
Via Identify the local and organizational systems for safeguarding DB’S checks for new staff North Yorkshire County Council Safeguarding Team Police Medical Services ICQ – Care Quality Commission Private care providers Council SIS – Independent Safeguarding Authority Viii Explain the roles of different agencies and professionals that are involved in safeguarding individuals North Yorkshire County Council Safeguarding Team and local authority social care services have key responsibilities: When they have received a safeguarding alert, someone will visit the individual and talk to them about their immediate deeds and support. Then, they would ask the individual what they would like to happen next. If there is significant risk of harm they would undertake any intervention needed to keep the individual safe and they would ask for consent to take it further. Then, the Safeguarding Team would liaise between all individuals and agencies involved; and arrange and record meetings and case conferences.
Finally they would remove the alleged abuser, if required. Everything discussed would be kept confidential. All agencies, including: the police, medical services, individuals, private providers, Trading Standards, ICQ, council; their key responsibilities: Work together to prevent and protect individuals at risk from abuse and work to agreed safeguarding adults policies and procedures. They need to promote well-being and prevent abuse and neglect from happening in the first place. Ensure all staff receives regular information about safeguarding training, understand policies and procedures. All employees are DB’S checked before working with vulnerable individuals.
Also empower and support people to make their own choices. Police have additional responsibilities and roles: Investigate allegations of abuse if a crime is suspected; and ensure the safety and protection of the individual at risk. Gather evidence and pursue criminal proceedings if appropriate, and to work with partnership agencies and identify courses of action. To work with the other agencies to help protect vulnerable people. Also raise awareness of the crimes committed. Medical services have additional responsibilities and roles: They can provide immediate treatment, if required, and undertake any medical examinations. They can also diagnose and treat the individual.