Hypothesis one: Restaurants that use revenue management strategies to a greater extent to reduce the uncertainty of arrival, the length of meal duration, and the amount of time between customers will have higher sales revenues, more table turns, and lower meal durations than restaurants that use these revenue management strategies to a lesser extent. Hypothesis Two: Restaurants that use price management to a greater extent will have higher sales revenue than restaurants that use price management to a lesser extent. It helps them to attract more customers in the competitive world. Research design is appropriate) What kind of? Why? A. B. Questionnaire: It can used to know the preference of the customer to get the feedback from customers and appropriate to make the changes according to customers need. Questionnaire is a best method when it is used in the right way it gives right information and more authentic and most updated information’s. Regression analysis: Hypothesis two is supported with this. The revenue management strategy of price management is significantly associated with sales revenue so it can be used as one of the method.
It is a scientific method which can be used to calculate more authentic and mathematically information’s. . Develop a plan for conducting a focus group to determine consumers’ attitudes towards and preferences for imported automobiles. Specify the objectives of the focus group, write a screening questionnaire, and develop a moderators outline. A. 2 A focus group interview is an inexpensive, rapid appraisal technique that can provide managers with a wealth of qualitative information on performance of development activities, services, and products, or other issues.
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A facilitator guides 7 to 11 people in a discussion of their experiences, feelings, and preferences about a topic. The oscillator raises issues identified in a discussion guide and uses probing techniques to solicit views, ideas, and other information. Sessions typically last on to two hours. To determine consumers’ attitudes towards and preferences for imported automobiles we have to choose people from the same industry with the wide experience who can handle the situation and have the right information with them.
We can have retired people of the industry and we can have current top leaders. Automobiles industry is the industry which requires lots of technical knowledge about the industry so we should have that in mind when selecting people. When Are Focus Group Interviews Useful? 2 Focus group interviews can be useful in all phases of development activities-? planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. They can be used to solicit views, insights, and recommendations of program staff, customers, stake- holders, technical experts, or other groups.
They are especially appropriate when: program activities are being planned and it is important for managers to understand customers’ and other stakeholders’ attitudes, preferences or needs specific services or outreach approaches have to take into account customers’ preferences major aerogram implementation problems cannot be explained recommendations and suggestions are needed from customers, partners, ex Before deciding whether to use focus group interviews as a source of information, the study purpose needs to be clarified.
This requires identifying who will use the information, Discussions last one to two hours and should be conducted determining what information is needed, and understanding in a convenient location with some degree of privacy. Why the information is needed. Step 1 . Select the team Conducting a focus group interview requires a small team, with at least a facilitator to tide the discussion and a rapport. The facilitator should be a native speaker who can put people at ease. The team should have substantive knowledge of the topic under discussion. Skills and experience in conducting focus groups are also important.
If the interviews are to be conducted by members of a broader evaluation team without previous experience in focus group techniques, training is suggested. This training can take the form of role playing, formalized instruction on topic sequencing and probing for generating and managing group discussions, as well as pre-testing discussion guides in pilot groups. Step 2. Select the participants First, identify the types of groups and institutions that should be represented (such as program managers, customers, partners, technical experts, government officials) in the focus groups.
This will be determined by the information needs of the study. Often separate focus groups are held for each type of group. Second, identify the most suitable people in each group. One of the best approaches is to consult key informants who know about local conditions. It is prudent to consult several informants to minimize the biases of individual preferences. Each focus group should be 7 to 11 people. Step 3. Decide on timing and location: Timing of the discussion and the location is also imported so that all can attend it at the right time and right place. Step 4.
Prepare the discussion guide: The discussion guide is an outline, prepared in advance, that covers the topics and issues to be discussed. It should contain few items, allowing some time and flexibility to pursue unanticipated but relevant issues. Step 5. Conduct the interview Establish rapport. Often participants do not know what to address questions to individuals who are reluctant Expect from focus group discussions. It is helpful for he facilitator to outline the purpose and format of the discussion at the beginning of the session, and set the group at ease.
Participants should be told that the discussion is informal, everyone is expected to participate. Stop taking notes when an individual talks for an Phrase questions carefully. Certain types of questions are one dimensional and do not stimulate discussion. Step 6. Record the discussion. Recording of discussion is very imported for proof and to avoid the biases. It will also help in future discussion and research. Step 7. Analyses Last step is the analyses of the interview and to give the feedback. Objectives of the focus group: Objective of the focus group should be to get the right information from the candidates.
They should focus on what they want to know, What is the purpose of this interview and try to get more and more information in one go. They should avoid any conflict with candidates and should give them a chance to speak and to give their views. They should not be bias with any particular candidate or product and should be willing to give right information Sample Questionnaire: Q. L Do you like imported automobiles or national automobiles. Q. 2 If you like imported automobiles then what attract you the most (brand, Look, price Comfort) Q. 3. What are your favorite brands in imported automobiles?
Q. 4 Which is your favorite national automobile brand? Q. 5 what changes will you suggest in national brands to compare it with imported automobiles? Q. 6 Is money a factor when deciding a particular brand. 3. You are in the marketing research department of a firm specializing in developing decision support system (DOCS) for the health care Industry. Your firm would like to measure the attitudes of hospital administrators towards ADS. The interview would be conducted by telephone. You have been asked to develop an appropriate scale for this purpose.
Management would like you to explain and Justify your reasoning in constructing the scale. A. 3 Decision support systems (ADS) have been around since the beginning of the era of distributed computing. The first decision support system made its appearance in the mid to late asses and can now be found in almost all industries where information systems are used. Decision support systems are increasingly being used in healthcare, where doctors, for use during their insulations, design some while others are aimed at the wider industry for not only doctors, but also other healthcare professionals and patients.
These decision support systems generally provide two types of support: 0 Diagnostic Support: – Here systems provide support concerning diagnosis or prognosis. They provide outcomes that reduce the uncertainty concerning the patient’s current or future situation. Management Support: – Systems provide support by providing suggestions on how best to manage a patient’s condition. Some of the suggestions might involve tests that have to be carried out, what medication or reattempt should be considered, sometimes with financial and ethical considerations taken into account.
Decision support systems aid clinicians in applying new information to patient care through the analysis of various patient specific data and enhance diagnostic and management outcomes. Decision support systems operate in three modes – active (systems triggered automatically and make decisions without any intervention), semi active (raise reminders and alarms according to the users input) and passive (where the user must make an explicit request to the system in order to gain advice).
Whatever mode the decision support system operates at, it must provide accurate and reliable data, which is retrieved from a knowledge base. The knowledge base is made of several sources of information from various medical disciplines, which might include patient observations, medical books and Journals, and the medical experience of several physicians. Scale: 4 Q. L Are you using any Decision support systems currently? Q. 2 if Yes, which model of Decision support systems you are using? Q. 3 What are that area’s that you have covered under Decision support systems? Q. 4 Which model of
Decision support systems you are using? Q. 5 After using Decision support systems do you feel any difference in the services? Q. 6 If given an option would you like to try new DOCS system? Q. 7 What will attract you most the quality or cost of Decision support systems? 4. After receiving some complaints from readers, your campus newspaper decides to redesign its front page. Two new formats B and C were developed and tested against the current format, A. A total of 75 students were randomly selected and 25 students were randomly assigned to each of three format conditions.
The students were asked o evaluate the effectiveness of the format on an 11-point scale. (1 = Poor, 11 -? excellent) State the null hypothesis NAS A) The null hypothesis is an hypothesis about a population parameter. The purpose of hypothesis testing is to test the viability of the null hypothesis in the light of experimental data. Depending on the data, the null hypothesis either will or will not be rejected as a viable possibility. The null hypothesis is that Pl – up = O where Pl is that the format B is better and up is that format C is better.
Thus, the null hypothesis concerns the parameter Pl ND the null hypothesis is that the parameter equals zero. B) What statistical test should you use? NAS b. Binomial test A one sample binomial test allows us to test whether the proportion of successes on a two-level categorical dependent variable significantly differs from a hypothesized value. For example, using the hiss data file, say we wish to test whether the proportion of females (female) differs significantly from 50%, I. E. , from . 5. We can do this as shown below. Neap tests [binomial (. 5) = female. The results indicate that there is no statistically significant difference (p = . 229). In there words, the proportion of females in this sample does not significantly differ from the hypothesized value of 50%. Two independent samples t-test An independent samples t-test is used when you want to compare the means of a normally distributed interval dependent variable for two independent groups. For example, using the hiss data file, say we wish to test whether the mean for write is the same for males and females. T-test groups = female(0 1) [variables = write.
The results indicate that there is a statistically significant difference between the mean writing score for males and females (t = -3. 734, p = . 00). In other words, females have a statistically significantly higher mean score on writing (54. 99) than males (50. 12). C) What are the degrees of freedom associated with the test statistic? NAS C). In statistics, the number of degrees of freedom is the number of values in the final calculation of a statistic that are free to vary. Estimates of statistical parameters can be based upon different amounts of information or data.
The number of independent pieces of information that go into the estimate of a parameter is called the degrees of freedom (UDF). In general, the degrees of freedom of an estimate is equal to the number of independent scores that go into the estimate minus the number of parameters estimated as intermediate steps in the estimation of the parameter itself. [ 6 Mathematically, degrees of freedom are the dimension of the domain of a random vector, or essentially the number of ‘free’ components: how many components need to be known before the vector is fully determined.
The term is most often used in the context of linear models (linear regression, analysis of variance), where certain random vectors are constrained to lie in linear subspaces, and the degrees of freedom is the dimension of the subspace. The degrees-of-freedom are also commonly associated with the squared lengths (or "Sum of Squares”) of such vectors, and the parameters of squared and other distributions that arise in associated statistical testing problems. 5.
Describe the appropriate target population and the sampling frame in each of the following situations: a) The manufacturer of a new cereal brands want to conduct in home product usage test in Chicago. B) A national chain store wants to determine the shopping behavior of customers who have in store charge card. C) A local TV station wants to determine households’ viewing habits and programming references. D) The local chapter of the American Marketing Association wants to test the effectiveness of its new member drive in Atlanta. NAS 5.
Situation Target population Sampling frame The manufacturer of a new cereal brands want to conduct in home product usage test in Chicago Housewives and children’s 1. Which Current brand they are using? 2. Which flavor their child like the most 3. Do they have any special price/brand/flavor requirement 4. Who choose the brand? 5. How they choose the brand? A national chain store wants to determine the shopping behavior of customers who have in store charge card. Existing customers with cards 1. Do you like the facility of card? 2. It is more convenient then the usual shopping? . It helps you in what ways? 4. Will you recommend it others also? A local TV station wants to determine households’ viewing habits and programming preferences. The local chapter of the American Marketing Housewives and children New and aspiring members Which is your favorite t. V Channel 2. Approve how many hours you watch the t. V. 3. Which are you favorite TV programmer 4. Who handle the t. V remote mostly? How was the experience of the drive? 7 Association wants to test the effectiveness of its new ember drive in Atlanta. It was worthy or not?
Will you recommend others also to Join it? Assignment B Marks 10 Answer all questions. 1 . Develop a series of questions for determining the proportion of households with children under age 10 where child abuse takes place. Use the randomized response technique. A. L randomized response is a research method used in structured survey interview. It was first proposed by S. L. Warner in 19651 and later modified by B. G. Greenberg in 1969. It allows respondents to respond to sensitive issues (such as criminal behavior or sexuality) while maintaining confidentiality.
Chance decides, unknown to the interviewer, whether the question is to be answered truthfully, or "yes”, regardless of the truth. For example, social scientists have used it to ask people whether they use drugs, whether they have illegally installed telephones, or whether they have evaded paying taxes. The sensitive question is worded in two dichotomous alternatives, and chance decides, unknown to the interviewer, which one is to be answered honestly. The interviewer gets a "yes” or "no” without knowing to which of the two questions.
For mathematical reasons chance cannot be "fair” (h and h). Let p be the probability to answer the sensitive question and PEP the true proportion of those interviewed bearing the embarrassing property, then the proportion of "yes”-answers YEA is composed as follows: Transformed to yield PEP: Questionnaire: Q. L How many children do you have? 8 Q. 2 How many are under the age of 10? Q. 3 Are parents literate? Q. 4 what is the profession of the parents? Q. 5 Does all the children’s go to School? Q. 6 If not then is they working anywhere? Q. Do any one in the family drink and smoke? Q. 8 Does any abusing in the family take place? Q. 9 Do you ever abuse or hit your child? Example of randomized response technique. Alternative 1 . ; "Yes child abuse take place Alternative 2: "No, Child abuse never takes place. ” The interviewed will be asked to secretly throw a die and answer the first question only if they throw a 6, otherwise the second question ( ). The "yes”-answers are now composed of consumers who have thrown a 6 and non- consumers who have thrown a different number.
Let the result be 75 "yes”-answers out of 100 interviewed ). Inserted into the formula you get If all interviewed have answered honestly then their true proportion of consumers is 1/8 12. 5 %). 2. A manufacturer would like to survey users to determine the demand potential for a new power press. The new press has a capacity of 500 tons and cost $225,000. At is used for forming products from lightweight ad heavyweight steel can be used by automobile, construction equipment and major appliance manufacturers. Identify the population and sampling frame that could be used.
NAS A. The target population for this is the large scale industry who deals in steal and fabricators work. Construction industry can also use this. There can be a questions like do have nay current power press? Are you using any press right now? What are the ongoing projects of your company and What are the projects requirement for steel press. B. Describe how a simple random sample can be drawn using the identified sampling frame. 9 NAS. B. A simple random sample can be used while sampling questions frame.
It will help to show the sample and to answer any query to the customers. It will also be a proof of work to shown. Could a stratified sample be used? If so, how? NAS C. No stratified sample can not be used in this case. Stratified sampling is a method of sampling from a population. But in this case we have to choose among the few selected industries. . Could a cluster sample be used? If so, how? NAS d. Yes cluster sample can be used in this case. Cluster sampling is a sampling technique used when "natural” groupings are evident in a statistical population.
The technique works best when most of the variation in the population is within the groups, not between them Which sampling technique would you recommend? Why? NAS e. I will go with Systematic sampling. It is often used instead of random sampling. It is also called an Nth name selection technique. After the required sample size has been calculated, every Nth record is selected from a list of population members. As long as the list does not contain any hidden order, this sampling method is as good as the random sampling method.