He lives it is clean, conveniently located and has the lowest prices. He intends to shop there every month for groceries An Attitude is: Persistent over a period of time (changing a strongly held attitude requires substantial pressure) Plays very important role in influencing behavior Marketers believe that attitude directly effect purchase decisions People hold attitude virtually about everything and marketers study many of them Measurement Assignment of numbers or symbols to characteristics of object AC to rules. Ђ We Do not measure objects, measure characteristics. Thus we do not measure consumers e measure their: – Perception – Attitude – Preferences etc. “If you can’t measure it, you can’t manage it. ” Bob Donate, Consultant Scaling An Extension of Measurement Involves creating a continuum upon which measured objects are to be located. Ex.
Ratio scale R – Ratio Scale – Zero point is fixed – Ratios of scale values can be computed – Common Examples – Length, Weight – Money – Sales – Market Share Measurement Scales What measurement scale will you use for the following? – – – – – – – Do you own a washing machine? How many books are there in your library? How satisfactory is banks service? Rank your preference for brands of shampoo? What is your marital status ? Your attendance in the Marketing Research class ? How many members watch Star-Plus during the prime time in your household? Scale Nominal
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Numbers Assigned to Runners Rank Order of Winners Third place Second place 9. 1 First place 9. 6 Finish 783 Ordinal Finish Interval Performance Rating on a O to 10 Scale Time to Finish, in Seconds 8. 2 Ratio 15. 2 14. 1 13. 4 Assessment using All Scales 1. Nominal Scale: Which of the soft drinks in the following list do you like? Coke Pepsi 7-up Sprite Mountain dew 2. Ordinal Scale: Rank soft drinks according to how much do you like each. (1 -Least Preferred, 5-Most Preferred) Coke Pepsi 7-up Sprite Mountain dew 4. Ratio Scale: How much Rupees have you spent in buying Hess soft drinks last month.
Rupees Coke Pepsi 7-up Sprite Mountain dew 3. Interval Scale: Please indicate how much do you like each soft drink, by checking appropriate position on scale. Dislike a lot Dislike don’t know Like Like a lot Coke Pepsi 7-up Sprite Mountain dew Illustration to Primary Scales to Nominal Scale No. Store Ordinal Scale Preference Rankings Interval Scale preference Ratings 1-7 57467 54 562 Ratio Scale RSI spent last month 1. Spanner 2. More 3. Reliance Mart 4. Food Word 5. West Side 6. Spar 7. Easy Day 8. Big Bazaar 9. Visual 10.
Wall-Mart 72831596410 2000 100 250 350 1000 10 Important-scaling Attributes We could end up writing a survey item that yields only nominal and ordinal level variables. More powerful scales (interval, ratio) allows stronger comparisons, analysis and conclusion. Primary Scales of Measurement A Comparison Scale Nominal Ordinal Basic Common Marketing Examples Brand nose. , store types Preference Permissible Statistics Descriptive Inferential Percentages, Chi-square, mode Percentile, median binomial test Rank-order correlation, Friedman NOVA Characteristics Examples Passport Number & Roll No. At BIBS G classify objects Nose. Dictate the relative positions of objects but not the magnitude of differences between them Differences Seeds in Windblown Tennis rankings, Market tournament position, social class Temperature Attitudes, opinions Age, sales, income, costs Range, mean, Product- between objects (Fahrenheit) Zero point is fixed, Length, weight ratios of scale values can be compared standard moment Geometric mean, Coefficient of harmonic mean variation A Classification of Scaling Techniques Scaling Techniques Comparative Scales Noncompetitive Scales Paired Comparison Rank Order Constant Q-Sort and Sum Other Procedures
Continuous Itemized Rating Scales Rating Scales Liker Semantic Differential Staple A Comparison of Scaling Techniques Comparative scales involve the direct comparison of stimulus objects. Comparative scale data must be interpreted in relative terms and have only ordinal or rank order properties. Non-comparative scales, each object is scaled independently of the others in the stimulus set. The resulting data are generally assumed to be interval or ratio scaled. Implementing Scaling Comparative Scaling (Ordinal / Rank Property) – Comparing two or more stimuli (Products, brands, attributes..
At one time) Example: Do you prefer Coke or Pepsi? Small Difference can be detected Once compared, respondents are forced to choose Non comparative scaling (Interval and Ratio Properties) – Each object is scaled (measured) independently of other objects – Evaluate Coke on a 1-5 preference scale (I?not at all preferred, 5=Greatly preferred). TYPES of COMPARATIVE SCALES Comparative Scaling technique I. Paired Comparison Scaling Most Widely Used in Marketing Research Used when Stimulus Objects are Physical Products. Coca-Cola Used 2,00000 paired comparison tests before launching New
Coke l. Paired Comparison Scaling Under Assumption of Transitivity, we can convert paired data into rank data – A is prefect, B prefer C, So A prefer C. Most commonly used in Taste Testing Taste 2 different products and select 1 with appropriate taste. Minimum of 1000 respondents considered adequate. Obtaining Shampoo Preferences Using Paired Comparisons II. Rank Order Scaling (Ordinal Scale) Most commonly used to measure preferences for brands. Forces respondents to discriminate among stimulus objects. Takes less time in comparison to paired comparison.
Preference for Toothpaste Brands Using Rank Order Scaling Instructions: Rank the various brands of toothpaste in order of preference. Begin by picking out the one brand that you like most and assign it a number 1. Then find the second most preferred brand and assign it a number 2. Continue this procedure until you have ranked all the brands of toothpaste in order of preference. The least preferred brand should be assigned a rank of 9. No two brands should receive the same rank number. The criterion of preference is entirely up to you. There is no right or wrong answer. Just try to be consistent.
Preference tort Toothpaste Brands Using Rank Order Scaling Ill. Constant Sum Scale (Ordinal Scale) Respondents allocate a constant sum of units, such as 100 Points to attributes of a product to reflect their importance. If an attribute is not important, the respondent assigns it zero point. If an attribute is twice as important as some other attribute, it receives twice as many points. The sum of all the points is 100. Importance of Bathing Soap Attributes Using a Constant Sum Scale Instructions On the next slide, there are eight attributes of bathing soaps.
Please allocate 100 points mongo the attributes so that your allocation reflects the relative importance you attach to each attribute. The more points an attribute receives, the more important the attribute is. If an attribute is not at all important, assign it zero points. If an attribute is twice as important as some other attribute, it should receive twice as many points. Soap Attributes Importance of Bathing Soap Attributes Using a Constant Sum Scale Form Average Responses of Three Segments Attribute 1. Mildness 2. Lather 3. Shrinkage 4. Price 5. Fragrance 6.
Packaging 7. Moisturizing 8. Cleaning Power Sum Segment 1 8 2 3 53 9 7 513100 Segment II 249 170 Microfiche 5360 100 Segment Ill 417791992015100 Slide 37 Microfiche This picture is covering data I can’t move. Is it okay like this? Or the author will need to adjust. , 6/13/2006 IV. Q-Sort Scale (Ordinal Scale) Developed to Differentiate quickly among large number of objects. Respondent given 100 cards each having product and different attribute. Asked to make 11 different piles such that pile 1 contains most preferred and 11 least preferred least preferred. Ђ Example: Toys Noncompetitive Scaling Techniques Respondents evaluate only one object at a time, and for this reason non- imperative scales are oaten retired to as monadic scales. Non-comparative techniques consist of: – Continuous Rating Scale / Graphic Rating Scale – Itemized Rating Scale A Classification of Non-comparative Rating Scales Non-comparative Rating Scales Continuous Rating Scales Itemized Rating Scales Noncompetitive Scaling technique The respondents are provided with a scale that has a number or brief description associated with each category. Ђ The categories are ordered in terms of scale position, and the respondents are required to select the specified category that best describes the object being rated. Ђ The commonly used itemized rating scales are the Liker, semantic differential, and Staple scales. Continuous Rating Scale / Graphic Rating Scale Respondents rate the objects by placing a mark at the appropriate position on a line that runs from one extreme of the criterion variable to the other. The form of the continuous scale may vary considerably.
How would you rate Big Bazaar as a department store? Version 1 Probably the worst – – Probably the best Version 2 Probably the worst – – – -probably the best 0 10 20 3040 5060 70 80 90 100 version 3 Neither good very good nor bad Probably the worst – est. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 very bad Liker Scale —Probably the The Liker scale requires the respondents to indicate a degree of agreement or disagreement with each of a series of statements about the stimulus objects.
Strongly disagree Disagree Neither Agree agree nor disagree agree 4 4 Strongly 1. Visual MM sells high quality merchandise. 1 2. Visual MM has poor in-store service. 3. I like to shop at Visual. 1 1 XX 555 The analysis can be conducted on an item-by-item basis (profile analysis), or a total (summated) score can be calculated. When arriving at a total score, the categories signed to the negative statements by the respondents should be scored by reversing the scale.
This controls the tendency of some respondents, particularly those with very positive or very negative attitudes, to mark the right- or left-hand sides without reading the labels. Individual teems on a semantic differential scale may be scored on either a -3 to +3 or a 1 to 7 scale. Staple Scale The Staple scale is a nun-polar rating scale with ten categories numbered from -5 to +5, without a neutral point (zero). This scale is usually presented vertically. Blue Star +5 +4+3+2 +1 HIGH QUALITY -1 -2-3 -5+5 +4+3+XX+1 POOR SERVICE -1 -2-3-4 -5 The data obtained by using a Staple scale can be analyzed in the same way as semantic differential data. Basic Noncompetitive Scales Scale Continuous Rating Scale Basic Characteristics Place a mark on a continuous line Examples Reaction to TV commercials Advantages Easy to construct