Time This lesson Is composed of four integrated teaching sessions designed for 45-55 minute class periods. Taught as a complete unit, the lesson may span two to three weeks, depending on the amount of time allowed for in-class sharing and writing. The objectives and materials are listed in individual sections. Overview Louis Armstrong said, “Jazz is music that’s never played the same way once. ” Ralph Ellison said, “Jazz Is an art of Individual assertion within and against the group… ” With this lesson students will attempt to develop their Individual and collective definitions of jazz.
In most cities today, continuous jazz can be heard on a local FM radio station. Usually, the music will be easy listening or “smooth Jazz,” as it is commonly referred to In urban settings. However, this music does not completely “define” Jazz. Does this music represent a particular kind of Jazz? Are there other “sounds,” that are not “mellow” and “quiet storm” sounding music? If so, where did the sounds come from, and who were the early players? How does this sound distinguish Itself from the sounds of earlier years, or is there a distinction?
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Does everyone Like this type of music? What do Likes and dislikes have to do with the benefiting of the jazz art form? The lessons and activities assembled here will answer these questions and perhaps raise additional questions for students to explore. Objectives Session 1 session 2 Session 3 Session 4 Recommended Resources Relevant U. S. National Standards Students will read two selected texts and extract definitions of Jazz from various famous people, such as Duke Elongating, Louis Armstrong, and Ralph Ellison. Students will compose a working definition/explanation of jazz.
Students will develop a time line of the jazz era from the early sass’s to mid-century using multiple resources. Students will read selected biographies. Students will listen to selected interviews with Jazz artists who describe the art form of Jazz. Students will listen to music composed or performed by Jazz artists. Return to TOP Session One Time: One to two 45-minute class periods. Students will read for Information and take notes. Students will develop a personal explanation of jazz based on their readings and 1 org Overhead projector with transparencies Copies of selected readings: Dance, Stanley.
The World of Duke Elongating. “The Art Is in the Cooking. ” Decapods Press, Inc. : New York, 1970, (2-6). Audio tape recordings of music by Elongating, Armstrong, Chlorate, or other legendary Jazz artists Computers with Internet access Pen and paper or Journals to record notes Large sheets of paper to record definitions Tube markers (both for transparencies and for paper) Warm-up Activity Copy the following statements about Jazz. If you agree with the statement, place a positive symbol (+) next to the number; if you disagree with the statement, place a negative symbol (-) next to the numbered statement. . Jazz is noise. 2. Jazz is music that’s always different. 3. Jazz is an American art form. 4. Jazz is revolutionary. 5. Jazz is the same as bebop, hip-hop, and the blues. 6. Jazz is new and old. Procedure 1 . Students will share and compare statements of agreement and disagreement. Students may tabulate their answers to determine which statement most people agreed and/or disagreed. 2. Have students listen to a selection by Duke Elongating or Louis Armstrong. Ask them if they would like to adjust their lists of statements after hearing the two pieces. 3.
Explain to students that they are going to read a short essay written by Duke Elongating. He discusses what he thinks Jazz is and why there has been some confusion about the way it is described. If you do not have copies of Elongation’s essay, see the PBS JAZZ Web site, “Jazz Lounge,” (http://www. PBS. Org/]jazz/ lounge’) for background information about Jazz. Alternatively, students might explore the Jazz Improvisation Primer(http://www. Outsiders. Com/primer/primer/ index. HTML) or Verve Music Group’s Jazz History(http://www. Overproducing. Com/ vault. Asps).
Carl Sandburg poem Jazz Fantasia” may also be a useful addition. 4. Have students take notes as they read. The double-entry Journal format is recommended for their use as follows: A double entry Journal can be made using taboo paper and folding it in half vertically. Draw a line with a pen or pencil down the fold to allow for two columns. Label the left-hand column “Notes” and the right- hand column “Reflections. ” Under “Notes” record important information; under “Reflections” record questions, impressions, connections, etc. 5. Have students read aloud in pairs; taking turns reading and writing notes.
They might want to skim the article silently first and then read it aloud to their partners, stopping to record notes they agree are important. Students should discuss the reading and enter their comments under “Reflections” on their Journal pages. Closure/Evaluation Have groups share one note and their corresponding reflection with the class. They can write them on large sheets of paper with markers or on transparencies so that their ideas are displayed visually as well. Homework Students are to use their notes and reflections to answer the following question: explain it? Return to Top Session Two Students will: read actively to answer comprehension and implied meaning questions using the text as support, and write and speak to inform. Materials Readings and writings from previous day’s session Your selections of recorded Jazz music Write a short essay or paragraph to describe language and the importance of communication. Think about these questions as you write: Have you ever misunderstood something or had someone misunderstand you because they thought you meant something other than what you meant? Why are words confusing sometimes?
Why is it important for people to have a shared understanding of what a word means? Procedure 1 . Have students read their essays (written during the warm-up today, and the homework writing from the previous session) and underline the sentence that best describes what the writing is all about (the topic sentence) and the title. . Allow each student to stand and read his or her title and topic sentence from each paper. Make suggestions orally for improvement and ask the students to share suggestions as well. Allow students time to make refinements before exchanging papers with fellow classmates for peer response. . Peer Response: Students read fellow students’ papers and suggest ways of improving the contents using the following model: Title of the writing Author’s name List two positive features of the paper Ask two questions the author needs to elaborate on or to clarify Make two suggestions for improvement Rate the paper overall from 1 (low) to 4 (high) You may want to play recorded music during this time; when everyone is done, ask students to return the papers to the authors for revision. Assessment Students may volunteer to share feedback from the activity. Are the comments/ questions helpful?
Why did we look only at the content and not at mechanics? How did you feel when you had to read your classmates’ papers? Did you do a good Job? Homework Students will revise both papers. Session Three Time: One to two weeks of researching, writing, and sharing. Objectives read about, listen to, and discuss music; and, reactive a variety of writing strategies: description, narration, exposition, and Elongating says “Music itself is a category of sound, but everything that goes into the ear is not music. ” Explain this statement scientifically. What does he mean?
Write a short explanation using what you know about hearing, music, and sound. Procedure 1. Description. Students will work in pairs or groups of four to list the sounds they like. Some examples might be the music they love, or the noise of conversation on the school bus in the morning. Ask them to write about what they are doing when they hear the sounds they love. How do they listen? Do they need quiet to hear certain sounds? Can they hear others even when there is noise all around them? 2. Narration. Have students look at their lists and their descriptions and determine how to prioritize the items.
If they had to give up all of the sounds they like but one, which one would they pick? Do they need to add other sounds to their lists now? What is the most precious sound they want to hear? Students should write about that sound and why it is important to them. Students should share their writings, peer edit, revise and finalize. 3. Exposition. Students will research how sound is produced and how humans hear. Ask students to demonstrate what they know about hearing by brainstorming lists or drawing diagrams. Together, draw the ear and the organs associated with hearing.
This site may prove helpful: http://staff. Harrisonburg. Ask. VA. Us/-?accorder/ear. HTML. Students will work in pairs or groups to prepare their research projects. They can search the Internet or use science textbooks to prepare brief but informative reports. Students must illustrate their findings, label the parts, and display them for others to read and learn the details about how sound is produced. Students will present their findings o their classmates or another class. 4. Persuasion. Students will write to convince someone of a particular opinion about music.
Students are to select one of the following statements for writing a persuasive letter or speech. The student must convince the listeners to agree with his or her position on the topic. Suggested positions are: “Music is good for the soul; therefore, all music is good and worthy of respect. ” “Loud music is offensive. ” “Some music is bad for young people because the language is crude and violent. ” “Music calms the savage beast. ” “l would not trust a man who said he did not like music. ” 5. Ask students to begin by identifying the audience and purpose for writing.
Allow students to write in class and to practice reciting their speeches and/or letters to each other. Homework Students are to refine their presentations and share with the class on the next day. Assessment Recommendations Rubric for presentations: 4–Star Quality: Student speaks loudly and clearly enough to be easily heard and understood. Student presents three or more arguments/statements to support his or her idea. The reasoning is logical and easy to follow. 3–Achieving: Student speaks well enough to be easily heard and understood.
Student presents two or more tenements of support. The ideas are logical. 2–Working: Student does not speak support. Some ideas are logical but may not be fully developed. 1–Willing: Student presents but does not speak with understanding. More support is needed for ideas and those that are shared are fragmented. Rubrics for writings: 4–Strong writing: Essays contain a well-developed topic sentence and several examples or supporting details. Papers are free of errors. Transitional words are used to connect ideas. Sentences vary in structure. Word choice is varied as well. — Capable writing: Essays are developed with a topic sentence and some examples or purporting details. Few if any errors. Some transitional words are used. Ideas are connected. Some sentence variation and word choice. 2–Developing writing: Partial development of a topic sentence with few examples or support. Several errors in language use; lack of transitional words. Little sentence variations and limited words choice. 1–Limited writing: Topic sentence not defined, but an attempt is made to have one. Few if any examples or support. Errors interfere with meaning.
Extension/ Adaptation Ideas 1. Build a model of the ear and brain to show how we hear and then write an explanation of the process. If we all hear the same things (a record playing for example), then why do we like different sounds? Why don we feel the same way about what we hear? What else has an impact on hearing? Have students add that answer to their models and to the explanations. How does this relate to Duke Elongation’s explanation of Jazz and music? 2. Select one of the topics below and have students write a short essay to explain their answers.
Remind them to: (1) state their position on the topic, (2) add their reasons for believing as they do, (3) write one paragraph for each reason, and (4) then close out the essay with a bang! Possible assay topics from the reading (and re-reading): What is the purpose of the food menu metaphor Elongating employs? Could he have explained the categories of Jazz better without using the food example? How? What does Elongating say about imitation and imitators? What is Elongation’s definition of Jazz? Do you agree or disagree? Explain why or why not.
Return to Top Time: Two to three 45-minute class periods. Practice active reading strategies of note taking, comparison/contrast, and main idea; read and comment on the definitions of Jazz artists; write definitions of Jazz; and, compare Elongation’s definition and their own. Copies of Craig Wearer’s “A Change Is Goanna Come: Music, Race, and the Soul of America” in The Jazz Impulse (Plume Books: New York, NY, 1998). Procedure 1 . Students will copy the quotations from Wearer’s article, and identify their sources. 2. Students will explain the meaning of each quote. . Students will write a comparison/contrast essay on one of two topics: (1) Elongation’s definition of Jazz and those of Armstrong and Ellison; or (2) Elongation’s explanation of of their groups. They will peer edit and revise before participating in scoring their essays using the rubric for writing. Extension/Adaptation Ideas Students can present their prepared speeches from the previous objective in Session Ill. On the second day, one student could begin a speech and another student who shares a similar viewpoint can pick up and continue the speech or improvise.
Have students learn about improvisation in different ways: for example, they may tell Jokes and riddles and come up with endings on the spot in a round-robin manner, I. E. One tells a Joke or asks a nonsense riddle and the person next to him/her must answer it. The idea is to get them to improvise. Have students listen to “Jam sessions” or live scorings of Louis Armstrong and His All Stars playing, “Into Misbehaving'” and “C Jam Blues” and Elongation’s band playing the same songs. Ask them to listen for the improvisations. Have students write a descriptive paragraph to describe what they heard.
Assign students the task of interviewing a professional in the music industry (teacher, local radio disc Jockey, editor of the music section of a newspaper, choir director, etc. ) or relatives and friends who are music lovers to collect definitions/ explanations of the meaning of Jazz. Students should also ask their interviewees which Jazz artists they like, and why. Students should try to interview as many people as possible, but no less than 10. They should tabulate their results and display the data in a scientific manner (graphs, charts, or some other visual). What conclusions can they draw from their findings?
Students should write a brief report to explain what they found out and whether the data supports what they’ve read or not. Return to Top The Soundly http://library. Thinkers. Org/19537/ Verve Music Group: Jazz History http://www. Overproducing. Com/vault. Asps ONCE Standards for English Language Arts Students read a wide range of print and non-print texts to build an understanding of sets, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United States and the world; and to acquire new information. Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts.
They draw on their prior experience, their interactions with other readers and writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts, their interactions with other readers and writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts. Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write. Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety of sources to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience. Students use a variety of technological and information resources.
Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning Understands the relationship between music and history and culture. (Music) Knows the characteristics and uses of computer software programs. (Technology) Return to Top A Jazz Talk Show Grade Levels: 6 – 8 Grades: 4-8 Subject areas: Music, History, Language Arts, and Theatre Estimated time of completion: 6 – 50 minute sessions Summary: Students will explore the lives of various Jazz musicians. They will become familiar with the social and historical events that were present during the lives of these individuals.
They will listen to the music of the artists and become knowledgeable about their styles. This activity will culminate in the production of a news/talk show created and performed by the students highlighting the lives of these musical fugues. Objectives: Students will listen to, analyze, and describe music. Students will gain an understanding of music in relation to history and culture. Students will gain experience in theatre arts skills. Students will gain experience in the general skills and strategies of writing. Students will gain experience in the general skills and strategies of reading.
Students will use the Internet to do research. Students will appreciate the relation of music to the history and culture Materials: Computer(s) with Internet access will be used for online activity and research Available library resources Available Jazz recordings Available video equipment Writing materials Procedure: 1 . Access the Jazz Greats component of the PBS Kids Jazz website. As a class, read some of the biographical material on the musicians found there. Use the questions below to spark discussion about the information they have Just been exploring. What did these musicians share in common?
What were the events and/or social influences that shaped their music? Ask the students if any of them share anything in common with these musicians (I. E. Play the same instrument, live or have lived in the same region/city as the musician, etc. ) 2. Move to the Future Jazz Greats area. Read some of the student submissions. Share any thoughts the students have on these: Are there any experiences in this section that they can personally relate to? What? Why? What comparisons can you make with he musical experiences read in the student submissions in Future Jazz Greats and the biographies in Jazz Greats? . Explain to the class that they are going to be creating a talk show. The focus of this show is J jazz and they will be interviewing famous historical and contemporary Jazz personalities. Students will choose several jazz musicians to research. These will be some of the guests on the show. After the personalities are selected, divide students into groups to begin researching them. (The number of personalities and students assigned to each will depend on class size home, the library, etc. All students will contribute to the scripting to be used by the hosts.
This will be based upon their research. Students should carefully consider the different perspectives they were exposed to in the Jazz Greats and Future Jazz Greats pages, and create interview questions that will reveal biographical, historical, and social/cultural events prevalent during the musicians’ lives, which are/were influences on their music. Students should have listened to (and may incorporate into the show) sound bites/recordings of the famous musician’s music. 5. When research is completed, students will select individuals to play the parts of the Caucasians they have studied.
A host and co-host will also be selected. Students will perform this show in an available venue (I. E. For another music class, parent, etc. ) 6. Written research will be handed into the teacher for evaluation. This can take the form deemed appropriate by the teacher (notes collected during research sitting sources, reports including resources, etc. ) Assessment: Students should have completed all assignments and actively participated in all discussions. Teacher assessment of student’s knowledge on various musical fugues through observation and anecdotal notes of performance.
Student evaluation of reject: Was enough information shared about the musician during the interview? If not, what else should have been included? Were audio musical examples used? What were the strong points in the presentation? Weak points? Suggest on area that could be improved and how you would do it? What was the most outstanding/ interesting thing you learned during this process? Extensions and Adaptations This presentation could be video taped and shown (in whole or segments) as part of the school news and/or in other classrooms. Commercials (aural and/or video) advertising the show could also be taped.
These commercials should be related to upcoming school events (public service announcements) or musically relate. (I. E. Commercial for a fictitious brand of the instrument played by the guest on that segment of the show). Students could write theme music for the show and include it at the beginning and in advertisements. Interview local Jazz musicians. Videotape these interviews to be used on the show. Invite these musicians to come on the show “live” and meet with the class and play for the students. Relevant National Standards from the Mid Continent Regional Educational Library (McRae): Music Listening to, analyzing, and describing music.
Understanding music in relation to history and culture. History Understands the folklore and other cultural contributions from various regions of the United States and how they helped to form a national heritage. Language Arts Demonstrates competence in the general skills and strategies of writing. Demonstrates competence in the general skills and strategies of reading. Gathers and uses information for research purposes. Technology Knows the characteristics and uses of computer hardware and software including the Internet. Theatre Uses acting skills. Designs and produces informal and formal productions.