It is the strengthening Of dominant espouses of present of others. It gives a boost on easy tasks. However, what would present of others may do to us? It will hurt our performance on difficult tasks. Because of the arousal, because we know we are being watched, we understand this; we can strengthen the dominant prevalent responses of present of others, but also can hinder our performance of difficult tasks. (ex. Professor’s long division) Researcher: Triplett, he study on string of fish into reel, Cyclist rode faster when they were not racing alone.
When others present, there is positive relation to the speed of the task in the present of there. Animals (race horses) Researcher: Michael and found that pool players in the student union, those that played good, when they were watched it helped their performances. But the weak players in the student union, when they were being observed, they did worse when they didn’t know they were observed. Ex, Athletes, when the crowd cheers and hears them, excites the player.
Don’t waste your time!
Order your assignment!
Where you are good at something, being watched will enhance your performance. But if you are not good at something, that’s going to hinder your performance (you might think that you will make mistake). It will boost your performance if it is easy task for you but it could hinder your performance in difficult task. So even if you are good at it could change to difficult but time that you are watching could hinder your performance. Ex. Exams.
Social facilitation effect has predicted from athletes to their perspective that they will perform better with larger audience. Larger the crowd, the more person tend to be arouse. Because of the relationship between crowding and arousal you are more likely to do poorly on the exam when you are densely packed class. Because it is so dense, the present of others can hinder you cause you are worrying about the people around you/ loose focus/(average person). Researcher: John Calhoun, classical study, on the rat overcrowding (4!
Ah??-*,” food, water, 150 could divide pan in to four section/ spaces closed/ two of the largest males take up two spaces/about 60 will be on one each)= Because of this crowding, there was collapse of social behavior therefore he called pay roll sink Rats were no longer mating/ building nest/even eating young/and some animal displayed random inappropriate cage rage (rat boxing). The condition on the colony deteriorated so much that infant morality exceeded 80%. So those had litter, 80% were dead.
Adult rats: showing number of biological maladies that are typically associated with stress/die premature A lot of times, looking at the animal behavior research, rat is very similar to us. Territory: or territoriality is a specific space that is been marked out and defended against intrusion to others. (Human, animal) sense of smell is very important as well as that it gives bonding. In territory, may be we don’t have sense of smell but we mark our space and defend our space. It serves important function, because it is a place where you are providing food, helter, and care for young/ animals dispersed evenly over the environment.
Is this territory exist in human? (Ex. Fences, in house) Researcher: Alton, 3 types of territory 1. Primary Territory: It is a place of which occupant has exclusive petrol (house, car, private office) 2. Secondary’ Territory: these are areas which share with others but the regular users Of this area is have considerable control (church, Allah, bench, parking, gym)= there are some think that they have exclusive control over something like It is my seat why are you setting there. Marking theirs 3.
Public Territory: Uncontrolled area, and used by who ever is iris to arrived (telephone booth/ library computer/ pool/ also park/ waiting for concert sleeping bag) Each type of territory, people will try to mark their space as their own and defend against their torsion (we have no crossing sign, no parking, gates, fences, hedges, border)= marking their space Reason for territory: to have status and more importance in our territory (our greed want more and bigger)/ if we have more money, we get treated better; our society makes us to wanting better ones.
Territory gives us security(S???? / It makes our lives more predictable because it needs to protect us room those we have fear and dislike (low bridges in long island, cause Of getting rid of slam buses)/People are more dominant in their territory, when doctors visiting their home, they are on theirs turf(they are clear and concise), when you are in doctors office, you are on the doctor’s turf (quite/friendly and nice/ miss something to say) – One position have observed that patient were submissive interacting in office, or in the hospital is quite assertive of when he was doing a home visit Classroom: classroom seats are in straight rows, they public comments on teacher, but rarely interact with teacher.
But if in the circle seat, you Will look at faces, sort of force you to interact with others. When the student facing front, in the straight row, 48% participated/ in circle seat, 79% participated. Researcher: Burnt Ignition, he attempted to determine whether people seated in certain positions tend to escape at a particular time. (Whether you participate in certain seat)= individual tend to speak after person opposite of them spoke (table facing each other= circle table). Primarily, this issue that people speak after person opposite spoke, usually happens leaders in the roof (informal)/ when there is strong leader, we tend to make comments on leaders or to closest neighbor.
If you are not comfortable speaking to leader, we have tend to say more to closest neighbor when there is strong leader is present (dominant)= Leadership role has been closely associated with chair at the head of table (home/ work)/ Social psychology experiment: those sit at the head of table also happen to be more dominant as far as personality concerned (talks more, exercise greater influence others by their present) Sitting arrangement in classroom: researcher have discover in the role of hysterical environment (social facilitation), the physical environment plays a role in how much it could influence group interaction. When group researcher wanted to encourage by sitting people facing each others. Researcher: Robert Somber, Hugo Boss, 1958, patient in newly remodel nursing home seemed depress with table next to the wall. When researcher rearranges the table In to circles, conversation doubled with in weeks. (Depress= not responding/ clinical depression where they shut down) Making them facing each other (pre K). Larger the crowd the greater the arousal (social facilitation) Depression is not responsible for major illness, but it depicts your immune system.
People more pessimistic, suffer more and recovery more, they feel more pain. Social loafing: This is tendency for people to exert less effort for their goal (pretending person who is working but just want your phone #, ask for info). Ex. When social loafing occurs, it would be individual is not responsible. When you no longer individual, you become in the group. So when you join group, you will get all same grade (control freak, and they do all work ??not a social loafing) When I am not individual, am not responsible thinking. Group embers may actually be less motivated in-group performing additive tasks= when you have task that group achievement depend on sum of individual effort. Ex.
Clapping, singing (acting like) How to avoid this social loafing: break part in the group and make them individual. We loaf less when the person task that is challenging, important, and evolves friend, But with stranger, we will loaf more. Free rider: is person gets benefit from the group but gives little in return. Ex. SQL??-?? We loose individuality in the group. Collectivities culture, they do less social loafing than individualistic culture. If it is single response, item ask, group performance will be yours (best member in sport) In sport they use task that consist of multiple items or sub tasks, that’s when the group out perform anyone of the group member.
Identification: that person experiences lose of self-awareness (doing something that you wouldn’t do alone). Evaluation apprehension, we are experiencing when we are being observed. People with anxiety, being watched will make worse. Why self-awareness (opposite to identification) is so important? = We are connected to trait. People with high consciousness, they are so self aware (less likely cheat, distinctive and independent, strong ensue of self) those individual who are self aware, there is better match BTW their words and attitudes. Circumstances contribute to be identification. It happens in the large group, when you are physically anonymous and you are involve in arousing distractive activity. (ex.
Sport event, something else) we are talking about this because social facilitation, power of the group that can provoke unrestrained behavior (teenager/group: you would do something outrageous but alone, no guts to do that) Form of identification 1 . Large group: the bigger the mob (?? e), the more its members will loose the elf-awareness. 2. Physical and anonymity (physically): ex. Wall Street occupancy/ Zanzibar did another experiment (two cars in Bronx (bigger city), California), Bronx: more vandalism and damaged to the car than in California. It is the big city that makes us anonymous. This physical anonymity can result anti social behavior for some. 3.
Arousing and distracting activities: By Douglass and McCarty, they found that anonymity of Internet. People are more hostile when they are anonymous. (Put more complaint in email than face to face) you are not thinking about values system instead, reacting to the tuition. One study done by David Dodd giving his research, asking student and write down responses if you could do anything possible with complete assurance and completely anonymous and what kind of things will you do? = Russian, charity, criminal axes (more frequent), sexual behavior, social disruption, spying behavior. Highest amount gave responded to anti social/ 36% neutral/ 9% proboscis.
Mind guards: this is a phenomenon where you will have members of the group to protect other group members from information. Surrounds the person or group to protect from receiving information. Group Influence talks bout how the group will influence you to bias. The mind guard is discarding reality for others, as a way of protection. (Keeping negative messages away from the person or group, president Kennedy, didn’t realize how bad it is because people who were guarding, said that he’s doing great) Group Popularization: is when the member strengthens the tendency of other members of the group (for better or for worst). No advocates, they strengthen their viewpoints, its members are affected by each other and there are no splits (president).
If there are large numbers of republican judges, the democratic will back up. To with your opinion Pluralistic ignorance: a false impression of what most other people are thinking or feeling or how they are responding. (It is thinking that no one is asking question so they don’t know the answers either so I am not going to ask. ) Chapter 9 Prejudice: It is a negative judgment of a group and to individual members. Prejudice is negative attitude, not a behavior. Something happening and you feel that but not certain about it. Stereotype: Is negative behavior, It is a belief about personal attributes to group of people. Sometimes it is personalized, inaccurate, and resistant to new information.
You start with prejudice, make it to stereotype. Racism: institutional practice that subordinate (putting down) people Of a given race. Sexism: institutional practice that subordinate (putting down) people of a given gender. Ex. Police height limit= automatically took certain ethic background and especially women (racism and sexism). Two type of prejudice (ex. The group that suffers the most?? transgender) Subtle(U??l??PI RIGOR): Under the table/ something that you know it’s happening but you are not sure because you don’t have evidence. Implicit (Deal-h??l Professor says he not she/ mankind) Culture of the lassoer, when treat women as subject of discourse.
Females do much better in the classroom, but why are their SAT scores are so low? (Because having period, taking care of young in home but mostly questions in SAT can’t answered by women = asking sports, mechanic, debt of cards something like men would know generally)/ such as feeling fearful in the presence Of a stranger with a particular ethnic background, is an implicit (unconscious) expression of negative beliefs and emotions. (Most likely in racist) Overt such as denying a particular ethnic group the right to vote, is discrimination that explicitly (keeping in mind/ unconsciously) expresses negative beliefs and emotions Automatic prejudice is not a subtle.
When they see people with automatic prejudice, they have areas of brain where associated with fear, it is firing when they talk about issues that they believe they have prejudice (fear response) Discrimination: unfair negative behavior toward a group or its member. Stereotype threat: is a feeling or attitude that comes up when person is taking exam. Research by African American decent = they have issues like that they are not good enough to answer this question. You are going to proof stereotype correct. The ones who suffer the most stereotype threat is women with poorly in math is Latin American women. Women will register class when they search and study before and if they think they will do better then they will register class. If there is ability to stop taking math they will. Stereotype Ex.
Calling on men often than women or could be reverse/ calling on minority student in the class to be a spokes person in an ethnic group. Also saying all romantic relation is heterosexual (transgender) Gender prejudice: gender stereotype and sexism, it may be favorable prejudice but it is not, it is still treating them differently. If you are the only omen, being the token, people will treat you benevolent (kindly) sexism. Benevolent is still bad thing. Hostile sexism: Ayes, car dealers, visited 90 of them, used uniform strategy, if the lowest price will be sold to White male. White female and black male, African women (had highest price) it happened everywhere.
Take male friend to the mechanic/ restaurant will give poor seat, giving seat later than other group/ serving food would be less if you are women or who ever is going to pay – Ideas of how men and women ought (must) to behave, these are gender role norm. (If you know the baby’s gender, then you begin to look at differently). Ideas of how men and women do behave, these are gender stereotypes. Data from 70 countries, people have shown than may perceive women as more agreeable and men as outgoing. Group serving bias: Explaining way out-group members positive behaviors also attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions while excusing such behavior by one’s own group.