The businessmen believe that they are defending free enterprise when they declaim that business is not concerned “merely” with profit but also with promoting desirable “social” ends; that business has a “social conscience” and takes seriously its responsibilities for providing employment, eliminating discrimination, avoiding pollution and whatever else ay be the catchwords of the contemporary crop of reformers. In fact they are??or would be if they or anyone else took them seriously??preaching pure and unadulterated socialism.
Businessmen who talk this way are unwitting puppets of the intellectual forces that have been undermining the basis of a free society these past decades. The discussions of the “social responsibilities of business” are notable for their analytical looseness and lack of rigor. What does it mean to say that “business” has responsibilities? Only people have responsibilities. A corporation is an artificial person and in this sense may have artificial susceptibilities, but “business” as a whole cannot be said to have responsibilities, even in this vague sense.
Don’t waste your time!
Order your assignment!
The first step toward clarity in examining the doctrine of the social responsibility of business is to ask precisely what it implies for whom. Presumably, the individuals who are to be responsible are businessmen, which means individual proprietors or corporate executives. Most of the discussion of social responsibility is directed at corporations, so in what follows shall mostly neglect the individual proprietors and speak of corporate executives. In a free-enterprise, private-property system, a corporate executive is an employee of the owners of the business.
He has direct responsibility to his employers. That responsibility is to conduct the business in accordance with their desires, which generally will be to make as much money as possible while conforming to their basic rules of the society, both those embodied in law and those embodied in ethical custom. Of course, in some cases his employers may have a different objective. A group of persons might establish a corporation for an eleemosynary purpose??for example, a hospital or a school. The manager of such a corporation will not have money profit as his objective but the rendering of certain services.
In either case, the key point is that, in his capacity as a corporate executive, the manager is the agent of the individuals who own the corporation or establish the eleemosynary institution, and his primary responsibility is to them. Appendix A The Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits Source: Milton Friedman, “The Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits,” New York Times Magazine, September 13, 1970. 211 2/8/1 1 8:20 PM Confirming Pages Needless to say, this does not mean that it is easy to judge how well he is performing his task.
But at least the criterion of performance is draughtswoman, and the persons among whom a voluntary contractual arrangement exists are clearly defined. Of course, the corporate executive is also a person in his own right. As a person, he may have many other responsibilities that he recognizes or assumes voluntarily??to his family, his conscience, his feelings of charity, his church, his clubs, his city, his country. He may feel impelled by these responsibilities to devote part of his income to causes he regards as worthy, to refuse to work for particular corporations, even to leave his job, for example, to join his country’s armed forces.
If we wish, we may refer to some of these responsibilities as “social responsibilities. ” But in these respects he is acting as a principal, not an agent; he is spending his own money or time or energy, not the money of his employers or the time or energy he has contracted to devote to their purposes. If these are “social responsibilities,” they are the social responsibilities of individuals, not business. What does it mean to say that the corporate executive has a “social responsibility’ in his capacity as businessman?
If this statement is not pure rhetoric, it must mean that he is to CT in some way that is not in the interest of his employers. For example, that he is to refrain from increasing the price of the product in order to contribute to the social objective of preventing inflation, even though a price increase would be in the best interests of the corporation. Or that he is to make expenditures on reducing pollution beyond the amount that is in the best interests of the corporation or that is required by law in order to contribute to the social objective of improving the environment.
Or that, at the expense Of corporate profits, he is to hire “hardcore” unemployed instead of better lifted available workmen to contribute to the social objective of reducing poverty. In each of these cases, the corporate executive would be spending someone else’s money for a general social interest. Insofar as his actions in accord with his “social responsibility” reduce returns to stockholders, he is spending their money. Insofar as his actions raise the price to customers, he is spending the customers’ money.
Insofar as his actions lower the wages of some employees, he is spending their money. The stockholders or the customers or the employees could separately spend their own money on the reticular action if they wished to do so. The executive is exercising a distinct “social responsibility,” rather than serving as an agent of the stockholders or the customers or the employees, only if he spends the money in a different way than they would have spent it. But if he does this, he is in effect imposing taxes, on the one hand, and deciding how the tax proceeds shall be spent, on the other.
This process raises political questions on two levels: principle and consequences. On the level of political principle, the imposition of taxes and the expenditure of tax proceeds are governmental functions. We have established elaborate constitutional, parliamentary and judicial provisions to control these functions, to assure that taxes are imposed so far as possible in accordance with the preferences and desires of the public??after all, ‘taxation without representation” was one of the battle cries of the American Revolution.
We have a system of checks and balances to separate the legislative function of imposing taxes and enacting expenditures from the executive function of collecting taxes and administering expenditure programs and from the judicial function of mediating disputes and interpreting the law. Here the businessman??self-selected or appointed directly or indirectly by stockholders?? is to be simultaneously legislator, executive and jurist.
He is to decide whom to tax by how much and for what purpose, and he is to spend the proceeds??all this guided only by general exhortations from on high to restrain inflation, improve the environment, fight poverty and so on and on. The whole justification for permitting the corporate executive to be selected by the stockholders is that the executive is an agent serving the interests of his principal. This justification disappears when the corporate executive imposes taxes and spends the proceeds for “social” purposes. He becomes in effect a public employee, a civil servant, even though he remains in name an employee of a private enterprise.
On grounds of political principle, it is intolerable that such civil servants??insofar as their actions in the name of social responsibility are real and not just window-dressing??should be selected as they are now. If they are to be civil servants, then they must be elected through a political process. If they are to impose taxes and make expenditures to foster “social” objectives, then political machinery must be set p to make the assessment of taxes and to determine through a political process the objectives to be served.
This is the basic reason why the doctrine of “social responsibility’ involves the acceptance of the socialist view that political mechanisms, not market mechanisms, are the appropriate way to determine the allocation of scarce resources to alternative uses. On the grounds of consequences, can the corporate executive in fact discharge his alleged “social responsibilities’? On the one hand, suppose he could get away with spending the stockholders’ or customers’ or employees’ money. How is he to know how to spend it? He is told that he must contribute to fighting inflation.
How is he to know what action of his will contribute to that end? He is presumably an expert in running his company??in 212 Business Ethics Now 1-227. Mind 21 2 01/02/1 1 3:12 PM producing a product or selling it or financing it. But nothing about his selection makes him an expert on inflation. Will his holding down the price of his product reduce inflationary pressure? Or, by leaving more spending power in the hands of his customers, simply divert it elsewhere? Orr by forcing him to produce less because of the lower price, will it simply contribute to shortages?
Even if he could answer these questions, how much cost is he justified in imposing on his stockholders, customers and employees for this social purpose? What is his appropriate share and what is the appropriate share of others? And, whether he wants to or not, can he get away with spending his stockholders’, customers’ or employees’ money? Will not the stockholders fire him? (Either the present ones or those who take over when his actions in the name of social responsibility have reduced the corporation’s profits and the price of its stock. His customers and his employees can desert him for other producers and employers less scrupulous in exercising their social responsibilities. This facet of “social responsibility’ doctrine is brought into sharp relief when the doctrine is used to justify wage restraint by trade unions. The conflict of interest is naked and clear when union officials are asked to subordinate the interest of their members to some more general purpose. If the union officials try to enforce wage restraint, the consequence is likely to be wildcat strikes, rank-and-file revolts and the emergence of strong competitors for their jobs.
We thus have the ironic phenomenon that union leaders??at least n the U. S. ??have objected to Government interference with the market far more consistently and courageously than have business leaders. The difficulty of exercising “social responsibility’ illustrates, of course, the great virtue of private competitive enterprise??it forces people to be responsible for their own actions and makes it difficult for them to “exploit” other people for either selfish or unselfish purposes. They can do good??but only at their own expense.
Many a reader who has followed the argument this far may be tempted to remonstrate that it is all well and good to speak of Government’s having the responsibility to impose taxes and determine expenditures for such “social” purposes as controlling pollution or training the hard-core unemployed, but that the problems are too urgent to wait on the slow course of political processes, that the exercise of social responsibility by businessmen is a quicker and surer way to solve pressing current problems.
Aside from the question of fact??I share Adam Smith’s skepticism about the benefits that can be expected from “those who affected to trade for the public argument must be rejected on the grounds of principle. What this mounts to is an assertion that those who favor the taxes and expenditures in question have failed to persuade a majority of their fellow citizens to be of like mind and that they are seeking to attain by undemocratic procedures what they cannot attain by democratic procedures. In a free society, it is hard for “evil” people to do “evil,” especially since one man’s good is another’s evil.
I have, for simplicity, concentrated on the special case of the corporate executive, except only for the brief digression on trade unions. But precisely the same argument applies to the newer phenomenon of calling upon dockworkers to require corporations to exercise social responsibility (the recent G. M. Crusade, for example). In most of these cases, what is in effect involved is some stockholders trying to get other stockholders (or customers or employees) to contribute against their will to “social” causes favored by activists. Insofar as they succeed, they are again imposing taxes and spending the proceeds.
The situation Of the individual proprietor is somewhat different. If he acts to reduce the returns of his enterprise in order to exercise his “social responsibility,” he is spending his own money, not someone else’s. If he wishes to spend his money on such purposes, that is his right and cannot see that there is any objection to his doing so. In the process, he, too, may impose costs on employees and customers. However, because he is far less likely than a large corporation or union to have monopolistic power, any such side effects will tend to be minor.
Of course, in practice the doctrine of social responsibility is free intently a cloak for actions that are justified on other grounds rather than a reason for those actions. To illustrate, it may well be in the long-run interest of a corporation hat is a major employer in a small community to devote resources to providing amenities to that community or to improving its government. That may make it easier to attract desirable employees, it may reduce the wage bill or lessen losses from pilferage and sabotage or have other worthwhile effects.
Or it may be that, given the laws about the deductibility of corporate charitable contributions, the stockholders can contribute more to charities they favor by having the corporation make the gift than by doing it themselves, since they can in that way contribute an amount that would otherwise have been paid as corporate taxes. In each of these??and many similar??cases, there is a strong temptation to rationalize these actions as an exercise of “social responsibility. In the present climate of opinion, with its widespread aversion to “capitalism,” “profits,” the “soulless corporation” and so on, this is one way for a corporation to generate goodwill as a by-product of expenditures that are entirely justified in its own self-interest. It would be inconsistent of me to call on corporate executives to refrain from this hypocritical window-dressing because it harms the foundation of a free society. That would be to Appendix A 213 01/02/11 312 PM all on them to exercise a “social responsibility’!
If our institutions, and the attitudes of the public make it in their self-interest to cloak their actions in this way, cannot summon much indignation to denounce them. At the same time, I can express admiration for those individual proprietors or owners of closely held corporations or stockholders of more broadly held corporations who disdain such tactics as approaching fraud. Whether blameworthy or not, the use of the cloak of social responsibility, and the nonsense spoken in its name by influential and prestigious businessmen, does clearly harm the foundations of a free society.
I have been impressed time and again by the schizophrenic character of many businessmen. They are capable of being extremely far-sighted and clearheaded in matters that are internal to their businesses. They are incredibly short-sighted and muddle-headed in matters that are outside their businesses but affect the possible survival of business in general. This short-sightedness is strikingly exemplified in the calls from many businessmen for wage and price guidelines or controls or income policies.
There is nothing that could do more in a brief period to destroy a market system and replace it by a centrally controlled system than effective overpayment control Of prices and wages. The short-sightedness is also exemplified in speeches by businessmen on social responsibility. This may gain them kudos in the short run. But it helps to strengthen the already too prevalent view that the pursuit of profits is wicked and immoral and must be curbed and controlled by external forces.
Once this view is adopted, the external forces that curb the market will not be the social consciences, however highly developed, of the pontificating executives; it will be the iron fist of Government bureaucrats. Here, as with price and wage controls, businessmen seem to me to reveal a suicidal impulse. The political principle that underlies the market mechanism is unanimity. In an ideal free market resting on private property, no individual can coerce any other, all cooperation is voluntary, all parties to such cooperation benefit or they need not participate.
There are not values, no “social” responsibilities in any sense other than the shared values and responsibilities of individuals. Society is a collection of individuals and of the various groups they voluntarily form. The political principle that underlies the political mechanism is conformity. The individual must serve a more general social interest??whether that be determined by a church or a dictator or a majority. The individual may have a vote and say in what is to be done, but if he is overruled, he must conform.
It is appropriate for some to require others to contribute to a general social purpose whether they wish to or not. Unfortunately, unanimity is not always feasible. There are some respects in which conformity appears unavoidable, so I do not see how one can avoid the use of the political mechanism altogether. But the doctrine of “social responsibility taken seriously would extend the scope of the political mechanism to every human activity. It does not differ in hilltop’s from the most explicitly collective doctrine. It differs only by professing to believe that collectivist ends can be attained without collectivist means.
That is why, in my book Capitalism and Freedom, have called it a “fundamentally subversive doctrine” in a free society, and have said that in such a society, “there is one and only one social responsibility of business??to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits so long as it stays within the rules of the game, which is to say, engages in open and free competition without deception or fraud. ” 214 01/02/11 3:12 PM Wayne Norman and Chris MacDonald* ABSTRACT In this paper, we examine critically the notion of “Triple Bottom Line” accounting.
We begin by asking just what it is that supporters of the Triple Bottom Line idea advocate, and attempt to distill specific, assessable claims from the vague, diverse, and sometimes contradictory uses of the Triple Bottom Line rhetoric. We then use these claims as a basis upon which to argue (a) that what is sound about the idea of a Triple Bottom Line is not novel, and (b) that what is novel about the idea is not sound. We argue on both conceptual and practical grounds that the Triple Bottom Line is an unhelpful addition to current discussions of corporate social responsibility.
Finally, we argue that the Triple Bottom Line paradigm cannot be rescued simply by attenuating its claims: the rhetoric is badly misleading and may in fact provide a smokescreen behind which firms can avoid truly effective social and environmental reporting and performance. Appendix B Getting to the Bottom of ‘Triple Bottom Line” INTRODUCTION The notion of “Triple Bottom Line” (ABLE) accounting has become increasingly fashionable in management, consulting, investing and MONGO circles over the last few years.
The idea behind the ABLE paradigm is that a corporation’s ultimate success or health can and should be measured not just by the traditional financial bottom line, but also by its social/ethical and environmental performance. Of course, it has long been accepted by most people in and out of the corporate world that firms have a variety Of obligations to stakeholders to behave responsibly. It is also almost a truism that firms cannot be successful in the long run if they consistently disregard the interests of key stakeholders.
The apparent novelty of ABLE lies in its supporters’ contention that the overall fulfillment of obligations to communities, employees, customers, and suppliers (to name but four takeovers) should be measured, *Much of the preliminary research for this paper was carried out while Wayne Norman was a Visiting Scholar at the Center for Social Innovation at the Graduate School of Business, Stanford university, and we thank the Center for its generous support. We are also grateful for numerous challenges and suggestions from audiences at the Conference on Developing Philosophy of Management, SST.
Ann.’s College, Oxford, and the University?? De Mont??al. Special thanks go out to Christopher Cotton, Jim Gaga, Mary Hill-popper, and Bryn Williams-Jones, as well as to the referees of this Journal. Source: Wayne Norman and Chris MacDonald, “Getting to the Bottom of ‘Triple Bottom Line,”‘ Business Ethics Quarterly, April 2004. 215 1-227. Mind 21 5 2/8/11 8:20 PM calculated, audited and reported??just as the financial performance of public companies has been for more than a century. This is an exciting promise. One of the more enduring cliche??s of modern management is that “if you can’t measure it, you can’t manage it. If we believe that ethical business practices and social responsibility are important functions of corporate governance and management, then we should welcome attempts to develop tools that make ore transparent to managers, shareholders and other stakeholders just how well a firm is doing in this regard. In this article we will assume without argument both the desirability of many socially responsible business practices, on the one hand, and the potential usefulness of tools that allow us to measure and report on performance along these dimensions, on the other.
These are not terribly controversial assumptions these days. 1 Almost all major corporations at least pay lip service to social responsibility??even Enron had an exhaustive code of ethics and principles??and a substantial percentage of the major corporations are owe issuing annual reports on social and/or environmental performance. 2 We find controversy not in these assumptions, but in the promises suggested by the ABLE rhetoric. The term “Triple Bottom Line” dates back to the mid 1 sass, when management thinking Accountability coined and began using the term in its work. The term found public currency with the 1 997 publication of the British edition of John Allegation’s Cannibals With Forks: The Triple Bottom Line of 21 SST Century Business. 4 There are in fact very few references to the term before this date, and many (including the man himself) lain that Lexington coined it. In the last three or four years the term has spread like wildfire. The Internet search engine, Google, returns roughly 25,200 Web pages that mention the term. 5 The phrase “triple bottom line” also occurs in 67 articles in the Financial Times in the year preceding June 2002.
Organizations such as the Global Reporting Initiative and AccountAbility have embraced and promoted the ABLE concept for use in the corporate world. And corporations are listening. Companies as significant as AT, DOD Chemicals, Shell, and British Telecoms have used ABLE terminology in their Reese releases, annual reports and other documents. So have scores of smaller firms. Not surprisingly, most of the big accounting firms are now using the concept approvingly and offering services to help firms that want to measure, report or audit their two additional “bottom lines. Similarly, there is now a sizable portion of the investment industry devoted to screening companies on the basis of their social and environmental performance, and many of these explicitly use the language of ABLE. 6 Governments, government departments and political parties (especially Green parties) are also well presented in the growing documentation of those advocating or accepting ABLE “principles. ” For many Nags and activist organizations ABLE seems to be pretty much an article of faith.
Given the rapid uptake by corporations, governments, and activist groups, the paucity of academic analysis is both surprising and worrisome. Our recent search of the principal academic databases turned up only about a dozen articles, mostly concentrated in journals catering to the intersection of management and environmentalism. One book beyond Allegation’s has been published, but this was written by a roomer IBM executive, not an academic. 7 (The generally languid pace of the academic publishing industry may be partly to blame here, given the relative novelty of the concept. In this paper, We propose to begin the task Of filling this academic lacuna. We do this by seeking answers to a number of difficult questions. Is the intent of the ABLE movement really to bring accounting paradigms to bear in the social and environmental domains? Is doing 1 According to a comprehensive poll conducted for Businesslike magazine’s issue of September 1 1, 2000, fully 95% of respondents agreed with the allowing claim: “U. S. Corporations should have more than one purpose.
They also owe something to their workers and the communities in which they operate, and they should sometimes sacrifice some profit for the sake of making things better for their workers and communities. ” By contrast, only 4% agreed with the position most closely associated with Milton Friedman in his oft-reprinted article, namely that: “IS IS. Corporations should have only one purpose??to make the most profit for their shareholders??and their pursuit of that goal will be best for America in the long run.