US AP TERMS: sass’s Forefend- Encumber Tariff- Created In 1922 raised American tariffs In order to protect factories and farms. Congress displayed a pro-business attitude in passing the tariff and in promoting foreign trade through providing huge loans to Europe, which in turn bought more American goods. This was a result of WWW, because the government wanted to ensure economic self-sufficiency so that no future enemy could manipulate the American economy. Also, many industries wanted to preserve the benefits of the increased wartime demand. Teapot Dome- An OLL reserve scandal that began during the administration of
President Harding. In 1921 , by executive order of the President, control of naval 011 reserves at Teapot Dome, Wyoming, and at Elk Hills, CA, was transferred from the Navy Dept. To the Dept. Of the Interior. The oil reserves had been set aside for the anВ??’ by President Wilson. In 1922, Albert B. Fall, U. S. Secretary of the Interior leased, without competitive bidding, the Teapot Dome and Elk Hills fields to Harry F. Sinclair, an oil operator and Edward L. Doyen. It was found in 1921 that Doyen had lent Fall 100,000 dollars interest free. Fall was indicted for conspiracy and accepting bribes.
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Alfred E. Smith- Smith was the democratic nominee In the 1928 election. Who ran against Herbert Hoover. He was the four-time governor of New York, known for his friendly personality. He did not get elected because he was a native to New York, Catholic, and a descendant of Irish grandparents. He was also a founder of the American Liberty league, a group of Influential finical and Industrial leaders who allied with conservative Democrats to appose many of the New Deal programs. Welfare Capitalism-A paternalistic system of labor relations emphasizing management responsibility for employee well-being.
Companies provided Incentives o build better relationships with employees; such as health insurance, safety standards, purchasing stock, and pension. In continued through the majority of the sass’s, and ended in 1929. The outcome was many workers gaining economic benefits, but In the large picture only affected a small percentage of the work force. Jazz Age- Name referring to the sass’s; a time of cultural change. Refers to the art such as new kinds of writing, music, artwork, and architecture, American Jazz music emerges from African American church and community.
Jazz becomes uniquely American. New forms of dance emerge as well. Also during the sass’s, people were spending more money and going out more, which also influenced the new culture change. The sass’s and Jazz Age was brought to a grim end at the beginning of the I OFF Fundamentalism- A movement in American Protestantism that arose in the early part of the 20th century in reaction to modernism, and to stress the infallibility of the Bible, not only in matters of faith and morals but also as a literal historical record, holding as essential to Christian faith.
Enforced belief in such doctrines as the creation of the world, the virgin birth, physical resurrection, atonement by the sacrificial death of Christ, and the Second Coming. Revivalists (Billy Sunday; Mime McPherson)- Refers to a specific period of spiritual renewal in the life of the Church. Billy Sunday was an American Fundamentalist minister; he used colorful language and powerful sermons to drive home the message of salvation through Jesus and to oppose radical and progressive groups. Mime McPherson was one of the most famous evangelist; preached with the help of bands, orchestras, and choirs.
Combined Hollywood showmanship, NY advertising, and old-fashioned religion and put it all on her own radio show. Gertrude Stein- American writer of experimental novels, poetry, essays, operas, and plays. In Paris during the sass’s she was a central member of a group of American expatriates that included Ernest Hemmingway. Her most famous works include Three Lives 1908, Tender Buttons 1914, and The Autobiography of Alice B. Toasts 1933. Lost Generation- A phrase made popular by American author Ernest Hemingway in his first published novel The Sun Also Rises.
Often it is used to refer to a group of American literary notables who lived in Paris and other parts of Europe, some after military service in the first World War. Those who identified with the Lost Generation include authors and poets such as Fitzgerald, Ezra Pound, Sherwood Anderson, Wald Pierce, and John Dos Passes. It refers to the time period from the end of WWW to the beginning of the Great Depression. More generally, the term is used for the generation of young people coming of age in the US shortly after and during WWW.
Marcus Graver- Born in Jamaica in 1887, Graver was the youngest of eleven children. He founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNION) in 1914. He then moved to Harlem in 1916, where the UNION thrived. The purpose of the UNION was to urge African Americans to be proud of their heritage and return to Africa, their ancestral homeland. This idea attracted thousands of supporters. To accommodate the return trip, Graver founded the Black Star Line in 1919. He also tried to persuade Liberia government in west Africa to grant land on which blacks from America could settle.
This failed. Although this and the Black Star Line failed, he was crowned Jamaican first national hero in 1964, twenty four years after his death. Paul Robbers-Black bass singer; 1924 starred in play by Eugene O’Neill “All God’s Chilling Got Wings; Civil Rights Activist. He used his music to express his involvement in the Civil Rights movement; songs such as “No More Auction Block” expressed his evolution in public schools. A statue was passed in 1925 that prohibited the teaching in public schools of theories that are contrary to the biblical account of human creation.
John T. Scopes, a biology teacher, was tried in 1925 for teaching Darwinism in a public school. Scopes’ attorney argued that academic freedom was violated and claimed that the statue violated the separation of church and state. He also argued hat the theory of evolution was present in some biblical interpretations. Scopes was convicted, and then released on a technicality issue. This case perfectly exemplifies the changing times during the sass’s; old traditions, such as strict interpretations of the bible, were now being challenged.
Dates Plan 1924- Plan created in 1924 to attempt to pay off WWW damages; the plan gave money to Germany to revive their economy. US loans Germany money which then can pay reparations to England and France, who can then pay back their loans from the US. This circular flow of money was a success, but halted abruptly when the Great Depression hit in 1929. Cacao and Vendetta- Two Italian-born laborers living in the US who were tried, convicted, and executed via electrocution on August 23, 1927 in MA.
They were convicted on account of armed robbery and murder of a pay-clerk and a security guard. The case incited much controversy based on questions regarding culpability; many questioned the innocence or guilt of Cacao and Vendetta. Many argued that the trials were unfair and biased, seeing, as they were immigrants. Washington Conference- International conference that in 1921-1922 produced a rise of agreements to limit naval armaments and to prevent conflict in the Far East and the Pacific.
It produced the Four-Power Pact, signed by the US, Great Britain, Japan and France. It stated that all who signed would be consulted in the event of a controversy between two of them over “any Pacific question”. Although seemed promising, this pact was too vaguely worded to have any binding effect. The second major legislature passed was the Five Power Naval Limitation Treaty, which was signed with all of the above including Italy. All powers agreed to scrap 1,900,000 tons f warships belonging to each other.
This greatly disarmed the powers in terms of naval power, and lasted until 1936. Kellogg-Brand Pact- “Toothless international agreement of 1928 that pledged nations to outlaw war. ” This was also known as the Pact of Paris; College’s Secretary of State and the French foreign minister signed it in 1928. It was a pledge to forswear war as an instrument of national policy. It was ultimately ratified by sixty-two nations. It was in response to the catastrophic number of casualties in WWW. Obviously it did not work, wars have continued ever since.