Bagas Yudhiswa Putera Literary Criticism Assignment

Bagas Yudhiswa Putera Literary Criticism Assignment Words: 4029

America. He has a purpose to come to Alaska to spend the rest of his life. It takes about two years for Mishandles to travel to Alaska. This paper alms to find the cause of Christopher Mishandles In abandoning his old life and starting a Journey to Alaska which led him to the end of his adventurous life. In doing the analysis, Fraud’s theory of psychoanalysis will be applied to find the answer of the problem statement. Plot Summary This movie uses nonlinear plot to show the Journey of Christopher Mishandles. The beginning of the story shows Mishandles’ arrival In Alaska.

There, he found an abandoned bus that he called as “The Magic Bus”, which, then, he used as shelter. He spent most of his time by animal hunting, reading books and writings journey documentary. The story sets in 1990, when Mishandles graduated from Emory university in Atlanta, Georgia. Mishandles was a super-fine man. He was graduated with high honors and having a convenient life. However, he was bored by his life, which he thought as Just ordinary life, then, he decided to go to a wild place without any provisions. Mishandles ruined all his cash supplies by destroying all of his credit card and also his identification document.

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He donated his entire savings to Oxford and starts his journey by driving his car across the nation. Mishandles decides not to tell his family about his sudden journey which made his whole family anxious and desperate. After rolling at Lake Mead, Arizona, Mishandles gets a flash flood that made him abandon his car and continued his Journey by hitchhiking, asking for a ride to strangers. He burnt all his remained money so he traveled with no money, destroyed his identity card, and made a new name: Alexander Superstars. In Northern California, he encountered a hippie couple named Jan and Rained.

They have lived soother for a while in a campsite in Coast. After having several talks with the hippie couple, Mishandles leaved in the next morning. At his Journey, Mishandles stopped Nanny Westerners. His next Journey is the Colorado Rivers. Mishandles was hoping that he may be able to kayak down the river, but the parks rangers disallowed him to do it since he did not have the license. Mishandles, however, ignored the prohibition. He insisted to paddle down the rivers until he finally arrived in Mexico. Mishandles’ kayak Journey was not any longer.

He lost his kayak in a dust storm that made him cross back to United States on foot. He continued his Journey by riding on freight trains, but it was not going smooth because he got caught by the railroad police. In 1991, he arrived at Slab city and met Jan and Rained again. There, he also met racy Taro. Tracy Taro was a girl who had an interest in Mishandles . Mishandles, however, rejects her due to the fact that she was still underage. McClellan continued his travels to Alaska. While sets his campsite in Saloon City, California, Mishandles met a retired man named Ron Franz.

Mishandles spent several months Ninth him before he continued his Journey. It can be seen that Mishandles’ rationality suited Ron so much that he wanted Mishandles to be his adopted grandchild. Mishandles told him that he would consider it later when he came back from Alaska. Thus, Ron gave him his old camping and travel gears and drove him to the nearest place to Alaska that he could reach. Finally, Christopher Mishandles could reach Alaska, a place where he wanted to be. Living in Alaska was not as fun as he had thought. His live was harder day by day. His supplies began to run out, so he planned to go home.

However, the stream that he had crossed when he departed to Alaska became wide, deep, and violent during he winter. Thus, Mishandles could not cross it. He decided to go back to the magic bus and waited the stream to become recede. To survive his life, he ate roots and plants. He confused similar plants and unfortunately ate the poisonous one. In agony, he wrote a farewell and completed his Journeys diary. He could not escape the pain and slowly suffocated in the magic bus. Two weeks later, his death body was found by moose hunters. His sister returned Uncleanness’s ashes by plane from Alaska to Virginia in her bag.

Analysis This movie tells about the Journey of Christopher Mishandles, a man who decides o throw his world and live in the wild. However, one may wonder why he chooses such a shocking decision to live into wild? Christopher Mishandles is not a poor who has to worry about his financial support. He has a good reputation in his university, and he lives in a fine society. It can be assumed that he actually does not have to Ender across the nations and find a place to live in solitude. At this point, it can be seen that actually Christopher Mishandles himself is suffered by his good-fortune condition.

He is stuck by his surroundings and later it brings him into a state which sakes him want to do something extraordinary from his life. Freud (1900) discovered that “human mind contains a dimension that is only partially accessible to consciousness and then only trough indirect means such as dreams and neurotic symptoms. ” He classified humans psyche into three compositions: ‘d, ego, and superego. Old can be seen as humans instinct which works at unconscious level according to the pleasure principle, or in other word, it can be doing the activity by the blending between id and superego.

Superego can be defined as the good side of human. Superego contains morality and goodness. Superego can stop one from doing certain things that one’s id may want to do. From the statements above, it can be assumed that Christopher Mishandles’ life is actually ruled by his desire to live in another side of the world. It is clear that every human has instinct to do what is said as pleasure or it may also be called as desire. “Desire comes from human unconscious level which means that it arises from something or somewhere that is beyond humans control” (Irvin& Ryan, 1998: 120). D is the major and most primitive component of human personality structure. It only responds to the pleasure principle and never stops seeking attestation. “Old also represents humans passions and aggressions” (Seawater, 1988: 53). Since Christopher Miscellanies actually a non-fiction character, he writes his life journey on a diary which later is adapted into a novel by Jon Krause and into a movie directed by Sean Penn, it can be said that Mishandles also has id in his psyche. Christopher Mishandles starts his Journey after graduating from his university Ninth high honors.

Chris begins to show his disillusion towards his surroundings Just after his graduation. This irking is supported by several factors, in this case, it can be en as the external factors which trigger Christopher to quit his common life and start a Journey to the place where he wanted to be, Alaska. Christopher is no different with other people. He uses to socialize, adapts to his environment, and he also likes reading books. The first factor which causes Chris have a thought of running away from his normal life is his family. Christopher lives Ninth his father and mother, and a younger sister.

One may say that this pattern of family as a perfect family. However, Chris’ family is not a perfect one. Chris’ parents are having such a huge argumentation. They always fight. Presumably, Christopher is fed up by this situation and wants to get away from it. It can be seen that this family situation had happened for a long time. Literally, family means a group of people linked by consanguinity, kinship, or shared ingesting and residence. “One of the main functions of the family includes providing a framework for the production and reproduction, biological and social. His can occur through the sharing of material substance (such as food); giving and receiving care and parenting (maintaining kinship); Juror rights and obligations; and moral and sentimental relationship” (Schneider, 1984). From these statements, it can be implied that family has important role in building person’s personality. “From the Children’s point of view, family is seen as family of orientation which means that family aids to locate children socially and plays a major role in their encapsulation and colonization” (Russo, 2003).

In reality, family is the first element of the world Inch is seen by children. In family, parents work so hard to build morality of their Children by giving basic information of colonization. One may find that family is the main important element in building children’s personality. Children learn what parents do and what parents teach. Fundamental patterns of personality are actually formed during childhood. A good home atmosphere, with good relations between the parents and the child, is essential for a energetic and freedom in large portions, the children will grow up to be strong, independent and self reliable.

On the other hand, if they are oppressive and tight; children will fear, lack of initiative and confidence. For parents who are over affection towards their children, it will make children less dependent and more stringent; it makes them too shy or too rebellious. Similarly disrupted families often create unstable, bad accustomed personalities. The child will have close emotional tie to the parents. The surroundings that children grow up in certainly have some effects on Neat type of personality characteristics they will develop. If families have a high conflict, and the children are drawn into many arguments and disagreements, they are much more likely to become disavowed or have a personality that will often be involved in conflicts as they grow older. In addition, if a family does not have any kind of structure within the household, children will be much more impulsive and may get onto trouble more often than children who come from structured households. ” (2013 D. Hairline) Even Christopher Mishandles is not a child anymore; he still lives under his parents’ roof.

As has been stated previously that Chris’ parents are not getting along ‘ere well, this can be seen as a bothersome for both Chris and her younger sister. However, since Chris is the oldest children, the burden seems heavier on him. Seeing his parents fight and argumentation makes him thinking of an escape into a world of solitude. His characteristic actually is also formed by the form of his parents’ willing to ivories and force both Chris and his sister to choose whether they want to be with one of them.

It can be seen that Chris actually does not want to be with one of them, but he wants to be with both of them and stops the fight (most children with broken home situation would feel this way). However, since Chris cannot make it happen, he then prefers to live by himself. These whole schemes of his parents’ argumentation can be seen as the main factor which later gives a birth of Chris’ motivation to live onto the wild. Other factor is Christopher society. It can be seen that Christopher lives in post modernity.

It is the conditions of life which becomes gradually predominant in the late 20th century in the most industrialized nations, including the omnipresence of mass media and production, the development of a global economy and a shift from manufacturing to service economies. The sociological view of post modernity become the beginning of the rapid transportation, wider communication and the power to desert the adjustment of mass production, leading to a system which values a wider range of capital than previously and allows value to be stored in a greater variety of forms.

This means that people are busier and more individual. Since the economic grows wider and the technology develops faster, people tend to work hardly to survive. “Society today is formed by personal experience, self-pursuing, and mass media, rather than the religious and moral institutions which have molded the society since a long time ago. There is no absolute truth anymore. In post modern society truth is rather relative. The massive predominance of the population leads a domesticity lifestyle” (2012 Polymorphisms).

The condition of the society shows that wealth and prestige is above anything in the world. This situation also occurs in he restaurant, his parents want to buy him a new car because they think that Mishandles’ car is obsolete and they feel shy to their neighbor. Featheriness (1991) says ‘if a society is postmodern, it must prioritize the consumption of resources in everyday life. In this view, mass media advertising and market dynamics direct people to a constant search for new fashions, new styles, new sensations, and new experiences. The consumer in postmodern culture is confounded by the density, the intensity, and the fragmentation of the instances of communication, by hyper reality that continuous to create fresh images and meanings based on the same racers, and by the incredible display of brands and products that show their own rules and procedures as a way of life. The consumer in postmodern culture, thus, exceeds the state of being the subject arranged in society to satisfy one’s individual needs, and becomes positioned and identified by what one consumes, projecting an mages necessitated by the hyper real’s demands upon the roles assigned to one by the culture.

Furthermore, “the postmodern consumer has no longer become the consumer but also the consumed, produced as a product of the consumption patterns which is ready, able and willing to be effectually consumed by the reigning chem. in the production and reproduction of properties of the society that preserve and advance the system” (Friar and Dollar, 1982). “The postmodern consumers are not only consumers for their own sake, but also object in the cycle of production for the ends of a system” (Friar 1991). From the statements above it can be said that Christopher parents are consumed by the technology development.

For people who hard to be affected by the era development, in this case is Christopher, the consumerism is not a necessary thing. Thus, it is clear that the change in society affect one’s personality in huge way. People who do not think about wealth and prestige will feel rather uneasy towards the consumer society. It can be seen that Christopher feels rage and bored with this kind of society which rather can be seen as monotone society. Chris has been living in a place which always has the same pattern of routines. People who live in a city will have to survive by working early in the morning and going home late.

Since Christopher has graduated from university, he realizes that he will also live that life pattern if he stays at his hometown. This makes Christopher intention to leave his world stronger. The last factor which sakes him want to go is books. Christopher Mishandles likes to read books. Literally, book is a set of written, printed, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of ink, paper, parchment, or other materials, usually fastened together to hinge at one side. Book contains a lot of knowledge either in literary way, or scientific way.

This is way people refer book as the window towards the world. Reading books may influence the reader to imitate the character or what is shown in the book. This also happens to Christopher. It is shown in the movie that Chris likes to read books by Henry David rhea, Boris Pasternak and Jack London. Those authors create an idealistic vision of the wilderness as a place of beauty and truth where one can escape reality. As can be seen, Henry David Thoreau is an American famous author. His love for nature has been spread among the world readers.

Thoreau was an early campaigner of leisure hiking and cannoning, of preserving natural resources on private land and wilderness Instead he pursued a middle ground, the rural realm that units both nature and culture. His philosophy entailed that he would be a didactic arbitration between the Mildness he based so much on and the spreading mass of North American immunity. He enjoyed the wildness nearby the swamp or wood, and he preferred ‘partially cultivated country. ” His idea of being “far in the recesses of the wilderness” Nas to “travel the logger’s path and the Indian trail,” but he also hiked on virgin untouched land.

He left Concord in 1846 for the first of three trips to northern Maine, New England. He had high expectation to find the genuine, primeval America. However, “to interact with real wilderness in Maine had affected him far contrary than the idea of wilderness that he had in Concord. Instead of coming out of the Nods with a deepened appreciation of the wilds, Thoreau felt a greater respect for civilization and realized the necessity of balance” (Nash, 2001). On the other hand, Boris Pasternak never seemed to have such record with nature.

However, it can be guessed that he disliked the situation of World War II which surrounded him at his time. Pasternak never saw the world primarily in political or social terms. He saw life as shaped less by man and his actions than by the deeper currents of love, faith and destiny. His well-educated and complex writing spoke to nothing less than the sense of life and the mystery of death. Pasternak treated social issues as important only in so far as they influence individual human destinies” (www. r]gibe. Com). In his most popular novel, Dry. Shaving, Pasternak described displeasure towards the environment of violence in war.

It is the story of one man and his mistress who together try to insulate their private lives from the chaos and violence of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Civil War that followed. Other books which are read by Christopher Mishandles are Jack Loon’s books. Jack London was having a difficult Childhood. Jack London was entitled as naturalist. “In his book The Call of the Wild, he old about a dog named Buck which is kidnapped to Alaska where through numerous hardships and encounters with the wild the dog recognizes his affinity to it and reverts to his primordial state” (http://www. ]occlusions. Et). From those three authors, Christopher Mishandles gets the willing to escape from his reality. As can be seen, Henry David Thoreau used to love the nature. He found that he be a didactic arbitration between the wilderness he based so much on and the spreading mass of North American humanity. Boris Pasternak was aiming to escape from the violence of Near which often happened at that time. And Jack London, in his novel, showed the Mildness of Alaska which makes Buck, the dog, reverts to his original state. It can be assumed that all those three authors’ worldview is connected to each other.

And one may deduce that Christopher chooses North America, Alaska, and escaping from his common society is from the urge that he gets from the books he reads. Henry rhea stated about North America, Boris Pasternak implied about isolating from the common society, and Jack London illustrated about the wilderness in Alaska Inch could revert such creature into its primordial state. Thus, Christopher enhances his dream to leave his environments, and decides to go to Alaska. His intention to go to Alaska here can be seen as the id of himself. He has huge pleasure to go and seemingly, his superego cannot stop it.

It can be said that actually Chris’ desire to go is not a bad thing. Looking back to the two first factors of him going to unconsciousness finds more pleasure in running away from the common reality into somewhere where he can be by himself. His superego seems to be defeated by his id. As can be seen, superego is the principled component of the personality and provides the moral standards by which later the ego will operate. Superego is the first powerful agency that human confronts in working on them, which human finds to be authorized in retaining the unconscious to stay unconscious and achieves this by rejecting the unconscious stuff.

Thus, human approach is to assist the ego deliberately defends itself against the attacks of the superego, and hence to remove this significant feature of the need for unconscious ego shield mechanisms. “If this is done, some consciousness of feelings and sensations will bring up the part of the unconscious denied by the superego, now that the ego is not guarding against t” (Llamas, 1992). This is meant that actually Christopher superego still works since the willing that he wants to do is not anything which cause him feeling guilty towards his surroundings.

Thus, the id which later “approve” by the superego becomes the motivation to do something in reality. Motivation is a theoretical construct, used to explain behavior. “a hierarchy theory of motivation which he classified into 5 levels: psychological needs (food, shelter, etc. ), safety needs (security, protection), social needs (sense of belonging, love), esteem needs (self-esteem, recognition), and self- actualization. (Moscow 1943) Psychological needs are the most basic needs of human motivation. When psychological needs are satisfied, people find the higher level of needs which is called safety.

Here as the movie which is shown the life of Mishandles, he obtains his basic needs. He lives in a prosperous family. His parents have a consulting firm. However, he does not get the higher level of needs. He does not feel safety, because of the conflict of his parents. He is not feeling safe from danger, and feeling painful when he takes a part in his society and family. He also feels anxious of his uncertain future. Thus, he decides to go to the wild and escape his life where he feels uncertain. Thus, it can be blended that Fraud’s theory of human psyche and Measles theory of motivation are linked each other.

Freud classified human mind as conscious and unconscious, and defined three stage of human psyche as ‘d, ego, and superego. Old is described as human instinct, in other Nay, one may also refer id as human needs. Human needs are neither automatically conscious nor unconscious. However, in common people, needs more often come as unconsciousness rather than consciousness. “It is not necessary at this point to take art to the remarkable mass of substantiation which signifies the vital importance of unconscious motivation.

It would be expected, on a priori grounds alone, that unconscious motivations would on the whole be rather more important than the conscious motivations” (D. Green, Christopher 2000). This means that both either Fraud’s theory and Measles theory are linked and may be applied to the case of Christopher Mishandles in Into the Wild movie. Christopher has not been able to fulfill his higher level of needs from his environments, and family that makes him feeling unsafe. Then, it comes the willing to run away from his society and family. The thought of running away, then, supported by the tales from the book he has read.

From this analysis, it can be seen that both internal and external factors have affected Christopher in making decision to go into the wild although the external Conclusion Christopher Mishandles is a man who is known by his deathly Journey in Alaska. He has been a well-respected student and man among his society. However, he dislikes his world, and runs away to Alaska where he can be alone. By using Fraud’s theory about humans psyche and Measles theory of motivation, the factors which cause Christopher Mishandles go to Alaska can be found.

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