Think positively Use the power of visualization Know that most nervousness is not visible Don’t Expect Perfection 7. Critical thinking- focused, organized thinking about such things as the logical relationships among ideas, the soundness of evidence, & the differences between fact & opinion 8. 7 elements in which we focus on how these elements interact when a public speaker addresses an audience Speaker- the person who Is presenting an oral message to a listener Message- whatever a speaker communicates to someone else Channel- the means by which a message Is communicated
Listener- the person who receives the speaker’s message Feedback- the messages, usually nonverbal, sent from a listener to a speaker Interference- anything that Impedes the communication of a message. Interference can be external or internal listeners Situation- the time & place in which speech communication occurs 9. Speech making becomes more complex as cultural diversity Increases. Part of the complexity stems from the differences In language from culture to culture. The meaning attached to gestures, facial expressions, & other nonverbal signals also vary from culture to culture.
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Ethnocentrism often blocks communication the belief that one’s own group or culture is superior to all other groups or cultures Chapter 2 1 . Ethics is defined as the branch of philosophy that deals with issues of right and wrong in human affairs. As a public speaker, you will face ethical issues at every stage of the speechifying process- from the initial decision to speak through the final presentation of the message. 2. Make sure goals are ethically sound, be fully prepared for each speech, be honest in what you say, avoid name-calling & abusive language(personal dignity & free beech), put ethical principles into practice 3.
Plagiarism- presenting another person’s language or ideas as one’s own Global plagiarism- stealing a speech entirely from a single source & passing it off as one’s own Patchwork plagiarism- stealing ideas or language from two or three sources & passing them off as one’s own Incremental plagiarism- failing to give credit for particular parts of a speech that are borrowed from other people 4. Be courteous , avoid prejudging the speaker, maintain the free & open expression of ideas Chapter 3 1 .
Hearing- the vibration of sound waves pm the eardrums & the firing of electrochemical impulses in the brain Listening- paying close attention to, & making sense of, what we hear 2. Art of listening can be helpful in almost every part of your life. Studies have been shown a strong correlation between listening & academic success. Regardless of profession or walk of life, you never escape the need for a well-trained ear. Listening is also important to you as a speaker. It is probably the way you get most of your ideas & information.
Appreciative listening- listening for pleasure or enjoyment Empathic listening- to provide emotional support for a speaker Comprehensive listening- listening to understand the message of a speaker Critical listening- listening to evaluate a message for purposes of accepting or rejecting it 3. Not concentrating, listening too hard, Jumping to conclusions, focusing on delivery & personal appearance Tips Take listening seriously Be an active listener Resist distractions Don’t be diverted by appearance or delivery Suspend Judgment Focus your listening (main points, evidence, technique
Develop note-taking skills Chapter 5 Brainstorming- a method of generating ideas for speech topics by free association of words and ideas 3. Internet searches 4. General purpose- the broad goal of a speech 5. Specific purpose- a single infinitive phrase that states precisely what a speaker hopes to accomplish in his or her speech 6. Tips for making a specific purpose statement Write the purpose statement as a full infinitive phrase, not as a fragment Express your purpose as a statement, not as a question Avoid figurative language in your purpose statement
Limit your purpose statement to one distinct idea Make sure your specific purpose in not too vague or general 7. Questions you should ask Does my purpose meet the assignment? Can I accomplish my purpose in the time allotted? Is the purpose relevant to my audience? Is the purpose too trivial for my audience? Is the purpose too technical for my audience? 8. Central idea- a one-sentence statement that sums up or encapsulates the major ideas of a speech 9.
Residual message- what a speaker wants the audience to remember after it has forgotten everything else in a speech 10. The central idea (1) should be expressed in a full sentence, (2) should not be in the form of a question, (3) should avoid figurative language, and (4) should not be vague or overly general. Chapter 6 1 . Audience centeredness- keeping the audience foremost in mind at every step of speech preparation and presentation 2. *** 3. *** Egocentrics- the tendency of people to be concerned above all with their own values, beliefs, and well-being 4.