Throughout World War II, advertisements were abundant. This was the first time in history that media used subliminal messages and altered people’s mindsets- almost a way of mental warfare. Artists like Theodore Gels, better known as Dry. Issues, were recruited to innovate a new way of reaching audiences- through cartoon art. Issues was the most influential author and artist regarding American propaganda in the World War II era. The cartoons seen in the American newspaper, PM, were racked with black-white anti-racism, greatly contributed by Issues. When Issues was a young boy, he would often doodle wild creatures with wild Ames. He would often find inspiration for such animals by going to the zoo, where his father worked. As he became older, he continued to draw humorous toned cartoons. After college, his cartoons appeared in many magazines. During the first phases of World War II, Dry. Issues began drawing political cartoons. A woman by the name of Jennie Vanderbilt turned in his political oriented cartoons to PM Magazine, established in New York.
According to Merriam Webster, propaganda is defined as, “ideas or statements that are often false or exaggerated and that are spread in order to help a cause, a lattice leader, a government, etc. “3 A person who is qualified to be the most influential propagandist is someone who is the underlying force of the persuasion. As a whole, PM magazine was the direct cause and force in New York City. While Dry. Issues was certainly intent on his messages, they were relatable and humorous, which is a key component in a successful propagandist.
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His actions contributed greatly in the prejudices accepted in advertisements throughout the city. In the duration of World War II, Issues opposed many ideas that were widespread in New York, which was where he lived and worked. In New York, anti-Semitism was a widely accepted idea. Many of his drawings display a strong stance against dictatorship in Germany, sending anti-fascist messages. In addition to an anti-fascist standpoint, Issues also attacked the discrimination against both blacks and Jews. In Issue’s cartoons, he often depicted the Japanese as harmless and somewhat pretentious.
This perspective remained constant throughout the war, even after the Pearl Harbor attack. PM Magazine, the magazine Issues worked for throughout World War II was anti- racist, regarding blacks, whites, and Jews. The authors and artists at PM felt so strongly about this topic that they began a campaign to eliminate racist ads for employment, housing or hotels. PM succeeded at last, causing the state of New York to ban these dads. Compared to other cartoonists at the time, Issue’s cartoons were direct in their intent and often harshly conveyed their enemies.
With the style of Issue’s cartoons, he riled up Americans for war efforts by strong opposition to Anti-Semitism. As a third-generation German-American, Issues was ridiculed throughout WWW as a child. 7 Later in life, he released his anger of being bullied as a hill to portray Nazis as ‘evil’. Dry. Issues used over 400 political cartoons to influence Theodore Gillie’s Political Significance during World War II By tumblers In addition to drawing cartoons, Issues also used short films to persuade Americans against Germans, and even Japanese. Issues wrote his first film, titled the “Private Snafu Series”.
This series was shown to soldiers to promote confidence in armies through Snafu’s mistakes. This film received the Legion Merit Award. Next, Issues was asked to write a film on Americans fighting in Germany to heighten the soldiers’ spirits. The film uniform Job in Germany’ was released in 1945. The film stereotyped all Germans as evil and dangerous. 8 After a big success writing uniform Job in Germany’, Issues moved on to a similar film, titled “Our Job in Japan”. In addition to this film, he also wrote a film titled, “Know Your Enemy, Japan”. These films were immediately denied publication by General MacArthur.
General MacArthur deemed the films as too inappropriate and racist. Dry. Issues greatly opposed isolationist ideas, unlike most Americans: “A Gallup poll established the fact that 70-85% of all Americans were strongly opposed to the war. And so was l. But I also believed that we had absolutely no choice in the matter and had better by God get prepared for a war that sure as hell was going to sock us. “9 Issue’s strong interventionist views in an isolationist world promoted excitement for war and, eventually, turned people’s mindsets to look more similar to Issue’s.
Dry. Issues recognized the idea of isolationism was becoming less and less common by the fall of 1941, as Americans began to realize the importance of the war. 10 While American used cartoons, films, posters, and articles to persuade respective of fellow Americans, other countries, such as Germany, utilized other methods of propaganda: Speeches, marches, rallies, radio, posters, and handouts. Other methods, designed uniquely by Joseph Gobbles were quite deceiving. Gobbles often used violence as a key component to his speeches.
In the beginning of the Nazi party, communists were much stronger than Nazis; Gobbles made his people look like victims of communists, which gained them sympathy. 11 AS members (Streamlining which was an organization of the Nazi Party) were considered heroes and martyrs to Gobbles. Nazis were frequently seen in the news- not Just for Gobbler’s speech making, but for confrontations with authority. The Nazis used arrests and trials of Nazis to their advantage. 12 When a Nazi was arrested, it would often appear in the news, which would provide direct attention on the emerging party.
In speeches, Gobbles would convey his points dramatically to emphasize points. He viewed Nazism as a religion, and preached it to the people of Germany. Not only was propaganda in Germany directed towards the adult population, but to the youth as well. An organization called “Hitler Youth” bolstered the next generation ideas of Anti-Semitism. Shortly after the Pearl Harbor attack, Issue’s ideas and campaigns were not changed the slightest- if anything, they were heightened. The ideas of isolationism were killed after Pearl Harbor. War was inevitable at that point, and Issues knew it. 3 A main target for Issues, after Doll Hitler, was Colonel Charles Lindbergh. 14 Charles Lindbergh was originally portrayed as a hero to Americans in the late ‘sys. As World War II was underway, though, American perspectives on Lindbergh altered drastically. Lindbergh was pro-Roosevelt pre-war. In many of Lindbergh speeches, e degraded the American people and caused confusion amongst the Americans: I saying that the leaders of both the British and Jewish races, for reasons which are understandable from their viewpoint as they are inadvisable from ours, for reasons which are not American, wish to involve us in the war.
We cannot blame them for looking out for what they believe to be their own interests, but we must look out for ours. We cannot allow the natural passions and prejudices of other peoples to lead our country to destruction. 1 5 Lindbergh began revealing his views of anti-Semitism and anti-Roosevelt during World War II. He sided with Hitler on numerous issues, including isolationism. In one of Lindbergh speeches, he claimed he understood the Jews were angry at Germany, but also argued the pro-war policy would be a danger for American and for them. 16 PM Magazine continuously attacked Lindbergh 7.
Issues was convinced, along with the entirety of PM that Lindbergh had partnered with Gobbles, who was the Nazi Propaganda Minister, and had become a Nazi. Lindbergh was criticized multiple times via cartoon. Issues constantly and consistently condemned many French collaborationist leaders. 18 Issues convicted people who betrayed France to side with Germany. Some people openly admitted a strong hope for a Nazi victory. Issues attacked Lava for numerous reasons: siding with Hitler, agreeing to send French workers to Germany, and collaborating with the Japanese to keep control in Indochina. 9 Issues brought many ideas to order throughout the duration of World War II. He completely changed viewpoints of many Americans of various issues. Although he clashed perspectives with many Americans, his views held strong and appeared consistently in his cartoons. Slowly but surely, over time, people listened to the sausages he was conveying. His work paid off when people began relating to his frustrations, because his propaganda, at last, influence people of authority. Ideas of anti-fascism, opposition of anti-Semitism, anti-isolationism, anti-Hitler, and anti- Lindbergh all became widespread within publication of his cartoons.
His perspectives on anti-racism regarding whites, blacks, and Jews were so strong, that they stopped printing all racist ads in New York City and influenced the public greatly. Not only did he influence the public with propaganda, but also the soldiers through motivational film. It is seen the racism towards Japanese further instilled ideas into both soldiers and minds of the public. Issue’s work was in numerous magazines, which reached a wide, diverse audience. His cartoons played an enormous role in exposing New York City on the darkest moments and people of history.
The crucial quality Issues had was not only his relatable personality, but also an extremely opinionated one. This combination can sell and idea to someone extremely quickly, which, in turn, benefited Issues greatly in being the most influential propagandist of his era.